“Sesenta mil años: las pinturas más antiguas del mundo en España”

Pintura en las cuevas de Altamira.

Por Jesús Millán Muñoz.

Según dicho estudio realizado por varias universidades y publicado en la revista Science dichas pinturas se han encontrado en tres cuevas españolas: La de Pasiega, Ardales y Maltravieso, a setecientos kilómetros de distancia unas de otras.

Con la datación del uranio-torio y no con el método del radiocarbono, se han descubierto pinturas de 64.000 años, de colores rojos-ocres o negros, con grupos de animales, signos geométricos, puntos, huellas de manos, estarcidos y grabados.

Dichas pinturas, se cree hasta el momento que fueron realizadas por Neandertales, ya que el Cromagnon se instaló en la Península Ibérica veinte mil años más tarde. Teniendo en cuenta, que las pinturas de Chauvet, se considera que tienen treinta o treinta y dos mil años, y las de Lascaux y Altamira, unos quince mil antes de Cristo. Debemos plantearnos varias cuestiones:

– Cuando se vaya generalizando este método del uranio-torio posiblemente, se encuentren otras cuevas en el mundo, con pinturas o signos o símbolos o señales de esa antigüedad o más. Lo cual, planteará multitud de otras cuestiones, posiblemente algunas habrán sido realizadas por nuestra especie, los cromagnones, o homo sapiens sapiens, pero otras, serán por neandertales.

También debemos pensar, si con esta edad se han encontrado pinturas rupestres, posiblemente, al menos yo siempre lo he pensado, que las pinturas o el arte plástico, antes o al mismo tiempo, los humanos lo pudieron realizar sobre sus cuerpos o materiales efímeros, que por lo general se ha perdido.

Además podríamos indicar, si el ser humano tiene esa capacidad de realizar signos-símbolos en paredes rupestres, podríamos denominarlas, protopinturas o protoarte, también harían posiblemente protoliteratura, protomúsica.

– Esto supone que el ser humano, ya en esa época, era un animal simbólico con capacidad de expresar signos, en este caso visuales-plásticos, pero que representarían contenidos-conceptos-ideas simbólicas sobre una diversidad de temas, no sabemos si sobre estados mentales interiores o de conciencia, o sobre realidades exteriores, o ambas cosas a la vez.

Lo cual es un salto de enorme importancia, aunque podamos pensar, al menos yo modestamente, que las actividades simbólicas, son mucho más antigua en las especies humanas, porque creo que sin ellas, sin conceptos-ideas-símbolos, no se puede entender mínimamente el mundo, el mundo interior y el mundo exterior, el mundo interior-exterior, y el exterior-interior. Si esta noticia o información se confirma y se sigue comprobando en otros yacimientos, es abrir una puerta muy importante a lo que somos y lo que hemos sido, porque parte de lo que somos depende de lo que hemos sido, y lo que hemos sido ha causado en parte lo que ahora somos.

– Es obvio, que el cerebro-psique-mente humana, llega a un nivel de complejificación, diríamos de percepción interna y externa, y tiene que explicarlo y explicarse, y para eso necesita encontrar ideas-conceptos-símbolos-representaciones psicológico mentales, que después expresa, sea en forma de palabras, sea en forma de arte visual o plástico o pinturas, o adornos u objetos que se pone en sí mismo, y posiblemente también en forma de sonidos y danzas.

Ya era una gran antigüedad las treinta y dos mil años de Chauvet, pero esa perfección no podría ser instantánea sino que tendría una tradición de milenios anteriores, como ahora parece ya se ha demostrado, aunque siempre se ha indicado que las primeras esculturas de Venus, eran más antiguas, y también se ha pensado la posibilidad de que algunas pinturas rupestres de Australia eran mucho más antiguas, pero ahora creo que en los próximos años se irá retrasando todas estas fechas, debido a la utilización del método del uranio-torio, aplicándose a las cuevas ya descubiertas con pinturas, porque pueden existir algunas de ellas, que sean más antiguas que lo que tradicionalmente se han datado.

– Pero estas pinturas que están en el fondo de las cuevas, lo cual significa que no existía luz natural, tendrían que llevar antorchas de alguna manera, de grasa animal o de vegetales, las hacían en esos lugares por alguna razón, es decir, posiblemente sería diríamos “ritos protoreligiosos”, no solo una simple significación estética y artística, ni solo sígnica de información de algunas temáticas. Por lo cual, si esto lo unimos con los hallazgos de enterramientos en decúbito supino lateral, con flores y ocres sobre sus cuerpos, debemos pensar que el hecho religioso o protoreligioso es mucho más antiguo de lo que pensamos.

O dicho de otra manera, que diríamos el ser humano tiene hambre de lo sagrado, y tiene hambre de lo simbólico-comunicación-arte. Estas dos realidades, quizás lleven juntas y unidas y relacionadas desde hace docenas de miles de años, y quizás, no solo sea por la especial conformación neuropsicológica humana, ni por su necesidad social-cultural de vivir y sobrevivir, sino que el ser humano siente, como una necesidad primordial, le llama y la llama de lo sagrado y lo simbólico-visual-plástico.

Para terminar a los autores plásticos de hoy y los coleccionistas de hoy de arte, bien harían en aprender todos esta gran lección, primero que el arte plástico lleva con nosotros docenas de miles de años, y que al menos, parece ser, que el arte siempre está unido, no solo a una estética y a conceptos-temáticas diversas, sino a una estética de lo simbólico-sagrado.

http://twitter.com/jmmcaminero        © jmm caminero

 

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