Prueban ya en humanos 10 vacunas frente al Covid-19, y se investigan otras 114

En dos meses, el número de vacunas en investigación se ha multiplicado por seis, lo que muestra el esfuerzo investigador sin precedentes en esta crisis, fruto de la colaboración público-privada en todo el mundo.

La industria farmacéutica reafirma su compromiso de que una vez obtenida la vacuna ésta será asequible y estará disponible para todos de manera equitativa.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ya tiene registros de hasta 124 vacunas en investigación en todo el mundo para comprobar su eficacia para prevenir la enfermedad por coronavirus. De este número, un total de 10 proyectos se encuentran en fase clínica, es decir, con ensayos en humanos, mientras que las otras 114 candidatas se encuentran en fase preclínica, con experimentación en laboratorio con modelos animales. El esfuerzo investigador sin precedentes entre compañías farmacéuticas y centros públicos de investigación para encontrar una solución terapéutica a esta crisis sanitaria se pone de manifiesto al comprobar que en la anterior información elaborada por Farmaindustria sobre los avances en la investigación -del pasado 26 de marzo- eran 20 las vacunas en desarrollo, lo que refleja que los proyectos en investigación se han multiplicado por seis en apenas dos meses.

Según los datos que maneja el organismo internacional, actualizados a 22 de mayo, de las diez vacunas en fase clínica, dos de ellas, la desarrollada en China por la compañía CanSino Biological y la que investiga en EEUU el laboratorio Moderna Therapeutics, están ya en la fase II de las tres necesarias antes de poder sacar una vacuna al mercado. Estas dos vacunas utilizan plataformas de desarrollo diferentes, lo que aumentará las posibilidades de éxito. Entre las otras ocho vacunas más avanzadas, con ensayos en humanos, aparecen una de la compañía estadounidense Pfizer, que desarrolla su proyecto junto al laboratorio alemán Biontech, y otra de la farmacéutica británica AstraZeneca, que investiga junto a la Universidad de Oxford. Los otros seis proyectos son los de dos laboratorios estadounidenses, Inovio Pharmaceuticals y Novavax, y los de cuatro chinos, dos de la compañía Sinopharm, uno de Sinovac y otro de la Academia de Ciencias Médicas de China.

Proyectos en fase preclínica

Entre las 114 vacunas en fase preclínica destacan las investigaciones de la farmacéutica británica GSK, con cuatro proyectos en marcha sobre vacunas, todos ellos en asociación, con los laboratorios Innovax, Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Sanofi y un cuarto con la Universidad de Queensland y la compañía Dynavax; el proyecto de la propia Sanofi, que desarrolla una vacuna junto a la biotecnológica Translate Bio; la investigación del laboratorio estadounidense Johnson & Johnson junto a la Autoridad para la Investigación y el Desarrollo Biomédico Avanzado (Barda) de EEUU, que ya ha comenzado la producción a riesgo en sus instalaciones de Leiden (Países Bajos), y la vacuna en investigación de la compañía japonesa Daiichi-Sankyo, en colaboración con la Universidad de Tokio.

Entre las vacunas candidatas en fase preclínica también se encuentran los dos proyectos desarrollados en España por el Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, perteneciente al Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).

Alianza con la OMS para un acceso global y equitativo

En el momento en que alguna de estas vacunas haya superado todos los ensayos de seguridad y eficacia,las compañías farmacéuticas se han comprometido a que estos tratamientos sean asequibles y estén disponibles en todo el mundo de manera equitativa.

Así lo reafirmó recientemente la Federación Internacional de la Industria Farmacéutica (Ifpma) –a la que pertenece la española Farmaindustria- al unirse como socio fundador a la alianza mundial liderada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) –denominada ACT Accelerator-, cuyo objetivo es acelerar el desarrollo y la producción de terapias y vacunas frente al coronavirus y asegurar una rápida distribución del tratamiento en cuanto esté disponible. “Nos enorgullece ser parte de esta asociación mundial histórica y estamos totalmente comprometidos con su objetivo de acelerar el desarrollo, la producción y el acceso equitativo a terapias y vacunas frente a la Covid-19 y que éstas sean seguras, de calidad, efectivas y asequibles. En la lucha contra la Covid-19 debemos asegurarnos de que nadie se quede atrás”, aseguró el director general de Ifpma, Thomas Cueni. A la alianza también se han sumado los principales gobiernos de Europa, Iberoamérica, África y Asia, entre ellos el de España.


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