Ponen rostro a una aborigen que falleció a finales del siglo VI-VII en Gran Canaria

Se trata del primer trabajo de este tipo que se realiza en Canarias, y uno de los primeros en España sobre la reconstrucción facial.

El Proyecto Humiaga 977, es un proyecto financiado por la Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural del Gobierno de Canarias, y liderado por Tibicena. Arqueología y Patrimonio y El Museo Canario. Se trata del primer trabajo que se realiza en Canarias de este tipo, y uno de los primeros de España, generando, por primera vez la «mirada» de una mujer del siglo VI d.C.

Este proyecto tiene un doble objetivo. Por un lado, hacer la reconstrucción facial (estética) del cráneo 977 (número del inventario de El Museo Canario) a través de un trabajo interdisciplinar en los campos de la bioantropología, reconstrucción facial forense, genética, arqueología; y de otro visibilizar el papel de la mujer en el pasado aborigen, insertándola y además, dentro de un espacio histórico y cultural significativo como fue La Fortaleza.

El cráneo fue recuperado con otros restos de la cima de La Fortaleza Grande, yacimiento que Grau Bassas, cofundador y primer conservador de El Museo Canario, interpretó como un gran Almogarén (templo). Este cráneo se depositó con el número 977 en El Museo Canario pasando desapercibido hasta este momento.

Los diferentes trabajos arqueológicos realizados en La Fortaleza han ido aparejados de diversas investigaciones (dataciones, analíticas, etc) que han permitido ahondar en su historia. En este sentido, el cráneo perteneció a una mujer que falleció a finales del siglo V-VI, lo que significa que es uno de los enterramientos datados más antiguos para Gran Canaria. Este enterramiento se vincula a las propias construcciones que se ubican en la cima, ya que se realizan a posteriori del enterramiento durante los siglos VI-VII, momento, quizás, en el que la parte alta funciona como un santuario, vinculado a la gestión de Humiaga, uno de los dos grandes lugares sagrados de la Gran Canaria prehispánica.

Este proyecto es una parte más de la estrategia de recuperación para el yacimiento de La Fortaleza. El rescate de la memoria de este lugar, no sólo se está realizando a través de excavaciones arqueológicas, sino a través de diferentes investigaciones que tienen una doble vertiente, la científica sobre el pasado del yacimiento arqueológico, y por otro, la puesta en uso inmediato de dichos resultados a la ciudadanía a través del propio centro de interpretación, gestionado por Tibicena.

Es por ello, que este proyecto va más allá de la simple reconstrucción estética, debido a que la bioantropología así como los estudios genéticos realizados, y el propio contexto arqueológico nos permiten acercarnos objetivamente a este pasado, evitando, así, idealizaciones raciales o falsas recreaciones históricas. En este sentido, detrás de la recreación hay una historia social y de género (¿Quién era esta mujer? ¿Cuál pudo ser el origen de la herida en la cabeza? ¿Por qué estaba enterrada en lo alto de La Fortaleza?) y cultural (¿Por qué un traje blanco? ¿De dónde hemos obtenido la información para el traje?).

El proceso

El trabajo se ha organizado para que el resultado final esté disponible de forma inmediata al público en general, a través de la creación de un busto 3d. Se inició con un microescaneado del cráneo, por parte de Tibicena, para su modelización 3d y la realización posterior del rostro. En paralelo, la doctora Teresa Delgado Darias (El Museo Canario) realizó un estudio bioantropológico del cráneo 977 que permitió conocer datos de primera mano sobre salud e higiene bucal, traumatismos y violencia, que permitía acercar más el futuro retrato a un contexto cultural e histórico concreto.

De este cráneo se obtuvo una muestra que fue analizada para la obtención y secuenciación de su ADN, y la realización de un análisis probabilístico de los caracteres físicos más probables (color del cabello, la piel y los ojos), basado en su secuencia de ADN. De este trabajo se encargó la doctora Rosa Fregel de la Universidad de La Laguna. Sin embargo, el deterioro genético de los restos arqueológicos impidió realizar este análisis. Por ello, se utilizaron como aproximación muestras similares de yacimientos de Guayadeque y La Guancha, que utilizados de forma estadística permitieron realizar la predicción sobre el color de piel, ojos y cabello.

Toda esta información se puso en manos de la empresa especializada en reconstrucciones virtuales PAR Arqueología y Patrimonio, que realizó el modelado 3d de dicho busto.


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