Desahucio: concepto, clases y forma

El juicio de desahucio es un procedimiento judicial que tiene por objeto la recuperación por el arrendador de una finca dada en arrendamiento. Le contamos en qué consiste un desahucio por falta de pagodesahucio en precario desahucio por finalización de contrato, qué hacer antes de demandar y qué fases tiene el procedimiento.

El Desahucio ¿qué es?

El desahucio es aquel proceso que tiene como finalidad que el dueño o arrendador de una finca pueda recuperar su posesión, ya sea alegando una falta de pago de la mensualidad o de cantidades equiparables a la misma (recibos por suministros, recibos de la comunidad de propietarios, impago del Impuesto de Bienes Inmuebles (IBI) por el inquilino, , etc.),  o en caso de que el plazo de duración del contrato de arrendamiento haya terminado, o por cualquier otra causa de resolución que se establezca en la Ley, y está regulado en la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil (LEC) siendo modificado por Ley en las Medidas de Flexibilización y Fomento del Mercado del Alquiler de Viviendas.

Clases de Desahucio

Para poder iniciar la tramitación del desahucio hay que basarse en 2 causas:

  1. Falta de pago del alquiler o cantidades asimilables a esta.
  2. Terminación del contrato o situación en precario.

Por falta de pago del alquiler o cantidades asimilables

En estos casos el demandante tiene la opción de solicitar al Juzgado:

  • La recuperación de la posesión del inmueble, es decir, que le entreguen el piso o local de negocio.
  • La entrega de los alquileres y demás cantidades pendientes.

En ambos casos, la solicitud que se tramita ante el Juzgado es la misma,  y se alega que el arrendatario no ha cumplido con su obligación de pago del alquiler y por tanto, se solicita la entrega de la finca en la primera, y en el segundo, se solicita adicionalmente el pago de la deuda. En estos casos,  si el inquilino no formula oposición, el Juzgado decreta la terminación del procedimiento sin necesidad de que se tenga que celebrar vista en el Juzgado ni dictar sentencia condenatoria.

Por terminación del contrato o situación en precario

En estos casos, se efectúa traslado de la demanda al arrendatario citándole para la celebración de una vista en el Juzgado, y posteriormente, se dictará sentencia sobre los extremos planteados, y sin que sea necesaria la presencia del demandado.

Tramitación y Forma

En cuanto a la forma y tramitación señalar que según la normativa vigente:

  1. La demanda vaya firmada por un Abogado y un Procurador siendo su intervención necesaria.
  2. Señalar en la demanda si el demandado tiene posibilidad de enervar la acción mediante pago de la deuda reclamada ya que en aquellos casos que se interpone el desahucio por falta de pago del alquiler o cantidades asimilables, y no se le ha reclamado previamente con un plazo de 1 mes,  el demandado tiene la posibilidad de pagar las deudas cuando lo requiera el Juzgado, y el contrato seguirá vigente.
  3.  Es fundamental solicitar en la demanda de desahucio que el Juzgado fije una fecha para el lanzamiento, para el caso de que  el demandado no se oponga al requerimiento que le ha efectuado el Juzgado, este decrete la finalización del procedimiento señalando fecha directamente para el desahucio.
  4. Ingresar las tasas judiciales por la presentación de la demanda de desahucio para empresas, bancos,… Excepto personas físicas que no deben abonar tasas judiciales.

Fuente: Alvarez Abogados Tenerife


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