“Cuestiones sobre el Mal y los males, III”

Por Jesús Millán Muñoz.

¿Cómo se explican esos barracones, esos campos de exterminio que sucedieron en el siglo XX en algunos lugares del mundo? ¿Estamos enfrentándonos al problema del mal y de los males, tanto a nivel individual, como a nivel colectivo?

Ciertamente, existen males realizados, sea por una persona, un colectivo-grupo, una ideología, una sociedad-Estado, que se han hecho en el siglo veinte, que son y serán enormemente difíciles de explicar. Que nos pasaremos generaciones, a no ser, que creamos otros males tan enormes, que los anteriores queden disminuidos, por otros nuevos. Por lo cual, es nuestra obligación humana, intentar entender el bien y el mal, primero para incentivar el bien, y para hacer disminuir, ralentizar, desaparecer, en la medida de lo posible el mal y los males.

– ¿Habría que plantearse si existen ideologías-filosofías-concepciones-sistemas teóricos humanos, que tienen aspectos buenos, pero que también malos?

¿O dicho de otro modo, si usted diseña una máquina para realizar tal función, y teóricamente ya no funciona bien, los churros que pensaba realizar con ella, o no se producirán o serán defectuosos o malos o negativos…?

¿Por lo cual, todos los seres humanos, deberían esforzarse, en analizar y detectar, aspectos teóricos, de toda ideología o entidad, teórica y práctica que sean malos; primero a nivel teórico, segundo a nivel práctico?

Caemos en un enorme error teórico y práctico, es pensar, que las ideologías-filosofías-sistemas teóricos nuestros son absolutamente verdaderos y buenos, y los supuestamente contrarios, son absolutamente erróneos y malos. Con esta mentalidad, que se tiene en todos los lugares, es un error tan grave de principio. No niego que cada uno pueda y deba creer en su propio sistema, pero tampoco podemos negar, que nuestro sistema teórico o ideológico, tiene graves errores, y los supuestamente contrarios, también pueden tener aciertos.

De ese modo, podremos avanzar hacia el bien y hacia mayores cotas de verdad. De lo contrario caeremos en enormes males, sean producidos por un individuo sobre si mismo, sobre una entidad, sea familia, o sea empresa, o sea sociedad o sea Estado, o sea desde el Estado.

– ¿Cuándo nos enfrentamos teórica y en la práctica, intentar entender Auschwitz, pero existirían otras realidades, en mayor grado de extensión o complejidad o cantidad o de consecuencias, nadie puede negar, que eso es malo, incluso casi absolutamente malo? ¿Y malo en muchos sentidos, malo moralmente, malo espiritualmente, malo desde los puntos de vista de cuántos millones de personas se perdieron, cuántos millones de personas que habrían tenido hijos, que habrían cambiado o modificado el saber, que habrían llevado una vida normal y rutinaria como nosotros, la mayoría de nosotros lleva y soporta y aguanta y difunde…?

No olvidemos que Auschwitz que es el ejemplo que estamos poniendo. Y que sirve para otros muchos campos de exterminio y de concentración producidos en todo el siglo veinte. Sin olvidar otros hechos, genocidios, etc. No sucedieron hace diez milenios, en la edad obscura, como muchos dicen, sino hace escasos ochenta años. ¡Ochenta años, en tiempos de nuestros abuelos…, es decir, hace dos o tres generaciones…, es más algunas persona que fueron actores, en mayor o menor grado, todavía existen, aunque estén dando sus últimos respiros…!

– Se podría definir-describir la civilización, como esa entidad compleja, con múltiples factores y variables, que se encamina o que busca el bien, e intenta alejarse del mal, acercarse a cientos o miles de bienes concretos, alejarse de cientos o miles de males concretos. Además de buscar una teorización correcta del bien y del mal…

Podemos discutir-dialogar-polemizar sobre un determinado tipo de acto, es bueno o es malo, tanto moralmente, como desde los otros puntos de vista, religioso-espiritual, pero también las categorías que hoy dirían muchos filósofos, es decir, categorías económicas, biomédicas, psicológicas, sociales, etc. Pero el gran error de estos dos últimos siglos, en algunas filosofías, algunos filósofos, que no pondré nombres, sino que ustedes busquen en su pensamiento o en los libros, es que han querido defender, de forma más débil o más fuerte, que no existe el bien, que no existe el mal, que tanto una cosa como otra, es convencional-social-cultural-endoculturación-epocal-ideológico.

Y éste es el gran error, sobre que se fundamentan, no solo grandes errores teóricos, sino grandes errores prácticos, no solo individuales, sino también afectando a colectivos-grupos-entidades sociales, pero también a la sociedad-cultura, y desde luego al Estado y desde el Estado. Y según a qué entidad afecta o afecte, el bien o el mal, se difunde en mayor o en menor grado, con consecuencia, a individuos concretos, a multitud de individuos…

Caer en la tentación o concepción teórica o práctica, de que no existen realidades que son bien en sí, y realidades que son mal en sí, sin entrar en la discusión o dialéctica de las circunstancias de ellas y de los individuos que las defienden. Caer en esa tentación, es en desinhiba, caer en lo que teóricamente se denomina o relativismo o materialismo o hedonismo o subjetivismo moral y ético. Y esto combinado después con una ideología positiva, sea de un tipo sociopolítico o sea de otros tipos o clases, es en definitiva, “sembrar la tierra, de dónde surgirán muchos males”, sea a nivel individual, colectivo, social o, incluso estatal. ¡Solo hay que mirar la historia de individuos, colectivos, grupos, sociedades y Estados…!

¿Y qué, como parece, existen ideologías, que piensan, que un grado de inmoralidad o amoralidad o antimoralidad es necesaria para gestionar o regir a los humanes, es decir, hacerlos inmorales, para así gestionarlos mejor…? ¿Caer en esta hipotética ideología que tiene enormes raíces, como parece ser existe, es un mal tan grave y tan grande, que en otro artículo deberíamos analizar, pero que ya les adelanto a ustedes…?

¿Incentivar, como así parece que sucede, que los humanes caigan en una docena de grandes males morales, unos en unos, otros en otros, en multitud de forma de los siete errores morales capitales o pecados capitales, es y demuestra, una enorme maldad, y sobretodo es no saber, que aunque parezca que a los humanes se les gobierna mejor con inmoralidad, al menos, un grado de inmoralidad, al final, los humanes se convierten en salvajes, y lo salvaje es más difícil de gestionar y gobernar…? ¿Y con peores consecuencias…?

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