“Babelplatz: la plaza de la quema de libros”

Por Jesús Mullán Muñoz.

El 10 de mayo de 1933, en dicha plaza de Berlín se quemaron entre veinte y cuarenta mil libros. En esta plaza en el 2006 se erigió una escultura en homenaje a los escritores más influyentes de Alemania.

Dicha escultura formaba parte del “Paseo de las Ideas”. También en dicha plaza el 09 de septiembre del 2006 se creó la “Mesa redonda de las voces libres”, que reunió a pensadores de todo el mundo, para encontrar respuestas y soluciones a grandes problemas sociales del mundo. Y también se realizó un “Monumento a la quema de los libros”, una instalación del artista Micha Ullman, que representa una estantería vacía, inaugurado el 20 de marzo de 1995…

Parece ser que Heinrich Heine escribió: “Allí dónde se queman los libros, se acaba por quemar a los hombres”.

Si se me permite, perfeccionar dicha frase, me atrevería a indicar: “se queman los libros, para quemar las ideas, y al final, se queman hombres y libros e ideas”.

No voy a fijarme puntualmente en este hecho histórico concreto, sino que éste nos debe servir para hacer unas reflexiones en general. Libros y bibliotecas se han quemado multitud de veces, a lo largo de la historia, y lamentablemente hombres que representaban determinadas ideas, también en diversos momentos de la historia. Quemar, encarcelar, asesinar ideas, y libros y obras culturales, y al final, o en medio a seres humanos…

La libertad de expresión, la libertad de conciencia, la libertad de pensamiento, la libertad de publicación, que la Carta de 1948 defiende e incentiva son los pilares de un mundo futuro mejor, de un mundo presente mejor.

Personalmente, me atrevería añadir a esos derechos anteriores, que van concatenados con la libertad de culto, el derecho de “que un libro que se ha creado exista, no se extinga, se mantenga en el tiempo, no se destruya, no necesariamente por la quema de libros, sino por la autodestrucción o heterodestrucción de multitud de formas o maneras que puede suceder”. Es decir, el derecho de un libro a ser y estar en el tiempo. Un libro o cualquier producción cultural.

Diríamos que en la desaparición de los libros, aplicable a cualquier otro material, artes, documentos, archivos, composiciones musicales, tratados, etc., existen dos tipos, uno fuerte, que es diríamos la quema física, sean de libros, sean de archivos, sean de bibliotecas, que es un fenómeno, que adrede o por accidente o por guerras han sucedido durante los siglos. Esperemos que este hecho desaparezca de la faz de la tierra.

Y otra desaparición de libros, que diríamos débil, no se queman los libros, pero se van peinando de las bibliotecas, es decir, parece ser un hecho común, que los libros que existen en las bibliotecas públicas o privadas, si no son leídos, muchos se van desarchivando, por eso se denomina peinar. Cuántos libros producidos y publicados con el tiempo, sean de cien o mil ejemplares o copias, se van destruyendo y desapareciendo. Cuántos libros quedan en los cajones de los escritores que los han producido y nunca llegan a la publicación.

Quizás, hoy con la tecnología de la información que disponemos, con la capacidad de archivar datos y documentos, podríamos, empezar a cambiar el ciclo de la historia, que ninguna producción cultural que se produzca, sea en imagen o sea en texto se destruya que se conserve para generaciones futuras… ¿Cuántos libros se perderán, al cabo del año en el mundo, de todos los que se producen, cuántas obras de arte, cuánta producción cultural?

Hay que analizar, cuántas sociedades censuran todavía hoy, a intelectuales-escritores-pensadores-artistas-científicos son perseguidos en mayor o menor grado, por sus ideas. Es decir, el flagelo de la quema de libros, aunque materialmente no se realice, en una plaza como en Berlín, leyendo un manifiesto de doce puntos, sigue existiendo en el mundo persiguiendo a autores, encarcelando a autores, no permitiendo que se publiquen y difundan determinadas obras. Obras sean cinematográfica, fotográficas, literarias, científicas sociales, artísticas, filosóficas, teológicas, etc.

No debemos olvidar y obviar, que existe también una persecución del libro y de autores, diríamos débil, pero existente, si en un territorio equis, se realiza un diccionario equis sobre una materia, de autores vivos que se dedican a una actividad, y se incluyen a todos, digamos quinientos, y se deja a algunos sin señalar sus obras en dicho directorio-diccionario-archivo-centro documental, etc., de alguna manera, se está cerrando puertas, a determinados autores, a determinadas obras, a determinadas producciones culturales, a determinados actividades de personas. Es una forma débil, pero eficiente y existente de censuran no siempre por el Estado, si por poderes intermedios públicos o privados…

Para terminar, desearíamos que jamás volviese a existir una nueva quema de libros, pero desearíamos que en ningún lugar del mundo, se produzca, ninguna quema de libros, sea en su sentido fuerte o en su sentido débil, sea en una manera o sea en otra. Y desearíamos, que ya que la humanidad ha alcanzado una tecnología suficiente, se busquen las maneras que ninguna producción cultural que se cree se extinga o desaparezca, que quede archivada para generaciones futuras, aunque sea en forma de imágenes o de textos. Paz y bien.

http://filosliterarte.blogspot.com.es  © jmm caminero

 

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