Aumentan en España los casos de niños que sufren TDAH

Según la Federación Española de Asociaciones de Ayuda al Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (FEAADAH), entre un 5 y un 7% de los pequeños y adolescentes padecen este trastorno.

El número total de diagnósticos del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) ha aumentado notablemente en los últimos años en España. Según la FEAADAH, alrededor de un 5 y un 7% de los niños y adolescentes españoles padecen este trastorno. Este dato supone un notable aumento en nuestro país. , sobre todo en la última década.

Diferentes expertos en psicología infantil, como es el caso de Antonia Lozano, achacan este aumento a distintos factores,» como por ejemplo el hecho de contar con mejores herramientas para su detección o a una mayor conciencia general del problema, aunque también es preciso apuntar a otro hecho que merece ser tomado en cuenta como es el sobrediagnóstico. Así, en no pocas ocasiones se impone a un niño la etiqueta de TDAH cuando en realidad solo se trata de un pequeño inquieto, movido, con ganas de jugar y que apenas tiene descanso durante su actividad.»

Para poder hablar de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es necesario detectar síntomas más precisos e inequívocos en el pequeño o joven. Algunos de los signos más habituales y que se asocian directamente con este trastorno son la dificultad de concentración, de seguir instrucciones u órdenes, la imposibilidad de estar sentado más de 10 minutos, la aparición de muestras claras de impaciencia o la escasa tolerancia a la frustración.

Como indica Antonia Lozano, psicóloga infantil, «para pasar de los síntomas a un diagnóstico fiable es necesaria la participación de un equipo multidisciplinar de profesionales y que estas conductas sean muy repetitivas en el pequeño o en el adolescente. En este sentido, es muy posible que un joven sea realmente inquieto en el centro escolar pero no así en su hogar, o viceversa. En esta clase de situación, no se podría hablar de TDAH.»

La prevalencia de casos de este trastorno en niños ha aumentado de forma considerable en los últimos años. Además, existen ciertos aspectos interesantes sobre este problema, como por ejemplo que los niños tienen muchas más posibilidades de padecer hiperactividad que las niñas. La proporción actual se sitúa en un 4 a 1. En cambio, son ellas las que presentan un mayor número de casos global de déficit de atención.

En cualquier caso, para poder llevar a cabo un diagnóstico adecuado, es preciso acudir a profesionales especialistas capaces de realizar este procedimiento de una forma profesional y eficaz.


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