Jorge Marichal | Y el turismo, ¿pa’ cuándo?

Mira que tenemos paciencia… Desde el primer momento de esta crisis ‘covidiana’ hemos sido de largo el sector más afectado y todo indica que desgraciadamente lo seguiremos siendo mucho tiempo. Todos los ministros y ministras, ¡incluso el de Consumo!, tan conocedor del turismo, han hablado del nuestro como el sector clave para este país y su recuperación. Es curioso que siendo tan clave lo dejen fuera del grupo de ‘los cuatro fantásticos’, y eso que la ministra Maroto tiene en su cartera un 40% del PIB del país, junto con Industria y Comercio. Sigo sin entender que se ignore el turismo o no se le dé el peso debido en la toma de decisiones. Y no me vengan con historias de encuentros en la tercera fase. Si no está en la mesa la opinión de la ministra, no cuenta como debería, así de simple.

Desde el minuto uno hemos puesto de manifiesto las necesidades del sector y siempre nos contestan que se está preparando un plan específico y que pronto lo expondrán. Pues señores, pronto es tarde. El turismo no puede seguir así. Menos mal que nos pusimos a ello y en semana y media elaboramos los protocolos frente a la pandemia, porque si no estaríamos todavía poniendo pegatinas en las puertas de los locales a ver cuál más imaginativa.

Todo es improvisación, mensajes contradictorios y errores de bulto en la comunicación por parte del Gobierno, que se traducen en pérdida de nuestra confianza y de la de los clientes. Comunicar mal lo de la famosa cuarentena, decir que se abre en una fecha y dos horas más tarde cambiarlo como si esto fuera el BOE −perdonen la broma−, esperar publicaciones que han llegado ‘in extremis’ un domingo a las 11 de la noche. Algunas de esas situaciones se pueden entender y son comprensibles, pero ya está bien.

Es la hora, la hora del turismo. La hora de salvar los muebles de la temporada de verano para la gran parte de la hotelería de España. No más excusas, no más lamentos; ya ni siquiera el problema económico puede servir de reproche, pues Europa ha soltado ‘la pasta’. No creo que pretendan hacernos esperar al 30 de junio para decirnos cómo se van a prorrogar los ERTE en el sector y sus consecuencias. Necesitamos certezas y con la antelación suficiente para poder reaccionar. Abrir un hotel necesita su tiempo, y más si quiere hacerlo con clientes. Y a este respecto hemos salido una y otra vez contando lo que el sector necesita.

Prolongar ¡ya! hasta el 31 de octubre, de momento, los ERTE por fuerza mayor en el sector turístico, dotándolos de una flexibilidad suficiente para que las empresas se líen la manta a la cabeza e intenten pescar en un río que está más seco que la mojama, a pesar de que muchos intenten hacer ver lo del efecto champán y esas cosas. Las empresas han de tener esa capacidad de meter y sacar personal del ERTE sin que eso suponga su ruina y sin tener que esperar a mil interpretaciones por parte de los dos ministerios, Trabajo y Seguridad Social, para saber si por incorporar a un servicio técnico en un hotel pasan a ERTE parcial los miles de empleados de una cadena, por ejemplo. Los que trabajen -y les aseguro que lo que queremos es trabajar- cotizarán y los que se mantengan en el ERTE deberían seguir con las exoneraciones actuales, por lo menos hasta el 31 de octubre. Es la manera más honesta, práctica e incluso barata para las arcas públicas. Si un empresario ve posibilidad de abrir lo hará y si tiene esa flexibilidad todo fluirá y no solo en nuestro sector, si no en España en general, aunque algunos ministros desconozcan lo de nuestra transversalidad, importancia y que somos los dinamizadores de nuestra economía. Si nosotros tiramos, tiran los demás.

Llevamos tres meses pidiendo por todos los medios, contactos políticos, ministerios diversos e incluso directamente con la Presidencia del Gobierno que se adopte un periodo de carencia automática en las bajas de capital de las operaciones financieras turísticas por periodo de un año. Ya no nos queda sino pedirlo en hebreo. ¿Es tan difícil de entender que con la que tenemos encima y la que nos viene por delante debamos proteger a nuestros empresarios para que no pierdan los activos? No solo eso, ¿es tan difícil de entender que necesitaremos rebajar las salidas de caja al mínimo para poder tomar decisiones más valientes con respecto al inicio de la actividad? Pero si esto no cuesta un duro a nadie e incluso beneficiaría a las entidades financieras, si se retocan ligeramente los criterios de provisiones ante el regulador. Esta medida ayudaría también a los alquileres, puesto que la presión en los propietarios sería menor y, por tanto, más fácil echar una mano a los inquilinos. Esto es rápido, fácil, barato y una tabla de salvación para gran parte del sector.

En el caso de Canarias, permítanme la licencia por ser mi tierra, aún no hemos cobrado de la turoperación los meses de la temporada alta −enero, febrero y marzo− cuando nos han caído encima los meses de cierre por esta pandemia. Ahora no sabemos cuándo podremos abrir, pero sí sabemos que cuando lo hagamos las tensiones de tesorería serán brutales y que los turoperadores estarán apretándonos, pidiendo ofertas y crédito a pesar de todo lo que nos deben. Lo más triste es que tendremos que pasar por el aro si queremos sobrevivir. ¿No será al menos loable pensar en una línea de avales que permita que esto pueda fluir? El Estado debería poner sobre la mesa esa línea de avales para que las empresas puedan dar crédito a esos gigantes internacionales con pies de barro y que las entidades financieras puedan descontar las facturas. El Estado podría hacer un análisis claro y en caso de quiebra de algunos de ellos tendríamos la deuda sindicada como país y podríamos sacarles los colores a esos países que siempre nos critican por vagos y que luego permiten que sus empresas nos engañen y nos roben quiebra tras quiebra. ¿Se acuerdan de Thomas Cook?

Necesitamos pagar esta factura de la COVID 19 y eso se hará a base de impuestos generados por la actividad económica. Muchos países están poniendo sobre la mesa medidas de fomento para incentivar a sus compatriotas a hacer turismo en su país, incluso le dan cheques al efecto. ¿Por qué no se bonifica a través de una deducción en el IRPF de este año a los españoles en un porcentaje de los gastos realizados en turismo esta temporada? No solo serviría para incentivar y aliviar un poco las maltrechas economías familiares, sino que al mismo tiempo contribuiríamos todos en la recaudación de impuestos. Un estudio reciente del Gobierno de Canarias ponía de manifiesto que apenas el 15% de la planta de vivienda vacacional está dada de alta. En las Islas Canarias esta planta supone ya el 25% de la oferta. El que lo quiera entender que lo entienda.

Podría seguir con un sinfín de medidas que hemos propuesto desde la patronal CEHAT y desde algunos lobbies o clubes de empresas del sector con muy buena voluntad y acierto.  Pero para finalizar esta reflexión, me pregunto qué está pasando con nuestro Ministerio. ¿Qué está pasando con algunos de sus miembros más valiosos? ¿Por qué se van? ¿Dónde está el nombramiento del director general de Turespaña? ¿Alguien no está de acuerdo en que es un puesto clave para la recuperación del sector que debe tener al frente a alguien cualificado y que entienda de esto?

Necesitamos un Ministerio de Turismo fuerte. Que sea valiente, resolutivo, que tome decisiones de sentido común en el momento en que hay que tomarlas, que se nutra de los y las mejores profesionales, y que sean escuchados por el presidente del Gobierno. Es nuestra hora… la hora del turismo.

Por: Jorge Marichal, presidente de Ashotel y de CEHAT.

 

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