Excavaciones revelan una ocupación de 1.000 años, la más antigua y mayor de Gran Canaria

Punta de ballesta hallada en La Fortaleza.

Una punta de ballesta respalda que podría ser la antigua Ansite o Humiaga, lugar de la última gran batalla de la conquista.

Del 10 al 30 por ciento de la población actual desciende de los aborígenes vía materna, asegura el arqueólogo Marcos Moreno, quien apunta que han pasado solo 17 generaciones.

 Una pintadera del siglo XIII, las semillas mejor conservadas y fragmentos de al menos cuatro ídolos son algunos de los hallazgos de la excavación que el Cabildo grancanario ha acometido en La Fortaleza y que revela que estuvo ocupada del siglo V al XV, la ocupación más amplia y más antigua de Gran Canaria, y un lugar que las crónicas apuntan que podría ser la antigua Ansite, donde tuvo lugar el último gran enfrentamiento entre castellanos y prehispánicos, en el que ahora ha sido encontrado el primer vestigio de guerra: una punta de ballesta.

El presidente del Cabildo, Antonio Morales, dio cuenta este miércoles junto al consejero de Cultura, Carlos Ruíz, el director de Patrimonio Histórico del Gobierno canario, Miguel Ángel Clavijo, y la alcaldesa de Santa Lucía, Dunia González, de la importancia de los hallazgos realizados en este Bien de Interés Cultural en el que el Cabildo ha invertido 828.000 euros desde el año 2011 por su enorme potencial y en el que proseguirán las excavaciones en septiembre. Será una nueva campaña que tendrá su momento más emocionante en la apertura de una habitación que ha sido encontrada sellada, tal como la dejaron los aborígenes o un derrumbe posterior.

La Fortaleza es uno de los más variados conjuntos patrimoniales de la Isla, ya que reúne en un mismo espacio grabados rupestres, cuevas pintadas, túmulos funerarios, cuevas de habitación, recintos vinculados a la posible observación astronómica y silos de almacenamiento, detalló el arqueólogo responsable de Tibicena, Marcos Moreno, quien apuntó que la población actual dista de aquella apenas 17 generaciones y que entre el 10 y el 30 por ciento desciende de los aborígenes vía materna, algo que revelará el ADN de cualquier persona que quiera comprobar si es su caso.

La gran variedad es una de las riquezas de este yacimiento, cuyas investigaciones suponen un salto en los conocimientos que se tenían ya que permite relacionar elementos hasta ahora inconexos, reconstruir su modelo de sociedad e incluso extrapolarlo a otros núcleos.

Tanto es así que reúne los elementos necesarios para considerarlo el Vaticano de la Gran Canaria prehispánica, un lugar sagrado con estructuras que parecen configurar gran parte de los yacimientos de la Caldera de Tirajana y constituía un gran vértice sobre el que pivotarían yacimientos vinculados al mundo de los rituales. Esto otorga mucho más peso a la hipótesis que habla de La Fortaleza como causa y efecto de un gran paisaje sagrado y ritualizado.

Un lugar sagrado que supuso, también, el primer asentamiento aborigen, un privilegio que se disputa con Guayadeque. En cualquier caso uno fue el primero y al otro se trasladaron cuando se les quedó pequeño. De hecho, el ADN de los restos de La Fortaleza, la datación radiocarbónica más antigua lograda hasta el momento, coincide con el de una momia de Guayadeque.

Además del primer asentamiento pudo ser el último, pues las crónicas apuntan que pudo ser Ansite o Humiaga, o incluso ambas, es decir, el lugar donde se libró el último gran enfrentamiento de castellanos y aborígenes, si bien de los lugares que se barajan, La Fortaleza es el que presenta la gran montaña a la que apuntan los escritos.

Por si fuera poco, ahora ha sido encontrada una punta de ballesta, que es un arma militar que solo se usó del siglo XIII al XVI, lo que si bien no certifica que fuera Ansite, ya revela que pudo albergar alguna batalla, esencial para ser Ansite, de modo que el hallazgo de más vestigios militares en las próximas campañas no haría otra cosa que respaldar esta hipótesis.

La casa de Rosa

Los sondeos presentados se realizaron en la mitad norte del recinto ovalado conocido como ‘la casa de Rosa Schlueter’ (estructura 7), en la base de la Fortaleza Grande, uno de los espacios con mayor potencial arqueológico y patrimonial de todo este imponente parque en el que se cita desde hace siglos la naturaleza con la recogido ya en 1543 en las crónicas del repartimiento realizado tras la conquista.

Entre los hallazgos también destacan gorgojos de hace siglos aún con patas, lo que significa que nadie ha pisado desde entonces este granero, el mejor conservado de Gran Canaria y del que también fueron extraídos granos de cebada, así como lentejas cuyo ADN ha despertado el interés de una universidad de Suecia.

La excavación permitió conocer en muy poco espacio muchas dinámicas desconocidas hasta ahora en espacios similares, desde la construcción de varios suelos a arreglos de paredes o superposición de muros. Además, la cronología permite saber que esta casa fue utilizada unos 150 años y fue testigo de los últimos momentos de la conquista de Gran Canaria.

La Consejería de Cultura y Patrimonio Histórico proseguirá en 2017 con su plan de intervenciones arqueológicas en La Fortaleza con la campaña que comenzará  en pocas semanas con una inversión de 60.000 euros con lo que también se restaurarán

las construcciones prehispánicas exhumadas en el curso de los trabajos, de tal modo que se garantice su completa integridad y estabilidad al quedar expuestas a los agentes medioambientales, entre otras iniciativas.

A ello se suman 3015.000 euros con cargo al Fdcan, financiado al 50 por ciento entre el Cabildo y el Gobierno canario, para dejar el yacimiento en estado óptimo para absorber la demanda de visitas. “Es de esos lugares emblemáticos en los que siempre invertiremos, excavaremos e investigaremos dado su potencial, aún hay terrenos aledaños que intentaremos adquirir para seguir excavando”, concluyó Ruíz, de manera que el trabajo y los secretos que desvelará la Fortaleza aún están por llegar.

 

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