Eutanasia: Delito inducción y cooperación al suicidio

¿Cómo está regulada la eutanasia como delito en el Código Penal? ¿Somos conscientes de que es un delito, con la gravedad que esto conlleva? Artículo 143 del Código Penal, Delito inducción y cooperación al suicidio. El debate sobre la eutanasia está cobrando actualidad con distintas opiniones en diferentes sectores de la sociedad. Según el CIS, la eutanasia en España es aceptada por la gran mayoría de los ciudadanos.

Eutanasia: Delito inducción y cooperación al suicidio

Es todo acto u omisión que ocasiona la muerte inmediata de una persona con el fin de evitarle sufrimientos insoportables o de evitar la prolongación artificial de su vida. A tenor del artículo 143 del Código Penal:

  1. El que induzca al suicidio de otro será castigado con la pena de prisión de cuatro a ocho años.
  2. Se impondrá la pena de prisión de dos a cinco años al que coopere con actos necesarios al suicidio de una persona.
  3. Será castigado con la pena de prisión de seis a diez años si la cooperación llegara hasta el punto de ejecutar la muerte.
  4. El que causare o cooperare activamente con actos necesarios y directos a la muerte de otro, por la petición expresa, seria e inequívoca de éste, en el caso de que la víctima sufriera una enfermedad grave que conduciría necesariamente a su muerte, o que produjera graves padecimientos permanentes y difíciles de soportar, será castigado con la pena inferior en uno o dos grados a las señaladas en los números 2 y 3 de este artículo.

Tipos de Eutanasia

La eutanasia es un fenómeno muy complejo en el que se distinguen muchas posibilidades. Se distingue, en primer término, entre eutanasia directa e indirecta. La primera supone adelantar la muerte de una persona con una enfermedad incurable y admite dos posibilidades.

Eutanasia activa que consiste en provocar una muerte indolora a petición del afectado cuando se es víctima de enfermedades incurables muy penosas o progresivas y gravemente invalidantes.

Se suele recurrir en estos casos al uso de sustancias gravemente dañinas o a sobredosis de drogas, especialmente morfina. La eutanasia pasiva consiste en dejar de tratar una enfermedad a sabiendas de que se va a ocasionar finalmente la muerte sin dejar de cuidar al enfermo.

Este tipo de eutanasia puede consistir en la abstención terapéutica y en la suspensión terapéutica. En el primer caso no se inicia el tratamiento y en el segundo se suspende el ya iniciado ya que se considera que más que prolongar el vivir, prolonga el sufrimiento y la muerte segura.

La eutanasia indirecta supone el uso de procedimientos terapéuticos que tienen como efecto secundario la muerte, como es el caso de la morfina para calmar los dolores, pero que también conlleva la disminución de la conciencia y del tono vital. En este caso se pretende aliviar el sufrimiento pero como consecuencia de ello se acorta la vida del enfermo.

Muerte digna

Consiste en el otorgamiento de medidas médicas paliativas que disminuyen el sufrimiento o lo hacen tolerable, de apoyo emocional y espiritual a los enfermos terminales. Es la llamada eutanasia genuina que consiste en ayudar a bien morir sin acortar la vida, y que no sólo no es delito sino que constituye una actividad digna y muy valiosa desde todo punto de vista.

Suicidio asistido

Supone proporcionar a una persona de forma intencional y con conocimiento los medios o procedimientos precisos para suicidarse, incluidos el asesoramiento sobre dosis letales de medicamentos, la prescripción de dichos medicamentos letales o su suministro.

Cacotanasia

Es la eutanasia que se impone sin el consentimiento del afectado.

Distanasia

Consiste en una forma de ensañamiento terapéutico, prolongando la muerte del paciente recurriendo a medios artificiales, a sabiendas que no existe remedio alguno para la curación, llegando en ocasiones a condiciones absolutamente inhumanas y ajenas al interés del paciente.

Artículo 143 del Código Penal

Desde el punto de vista jurídico, la eutanasia es el comportamiento que, de acuerdo con la voluntad o interés de otra persona que padece una lesión o enfermedad incurable, generalmente mortal, que le causa graves sufrimientos y afecta considerablemente a su calidad de vida, da lugar a la producción, anticipación o no aplazamiento de la vida del afectado.

En la eutanasia se produce un grave conflicto individual de la persona que sufre una enfermedad incurable y con graves padecimientos que quiere morir y la asistencia de un tercero que por móviles de piedad que con su intervención propicia la anticipación de la muerte.

En el artículo 143 el bien jurídico protegido es la vida independientemente de que la víctima sea quien libremente disponga de su vida o preste su consentimiento para que otro lo haga. Como bien es sabido, el suicidio o la tentativa para el suicidio no son punibles pero, por el contrario, sobre la base del respeto y protección que merece la vida humana, no es lícito inducir al suicidio o cooperar de forma necesaria causando incluso la muerte de quien se quiere suicidar.

No obstante, en vista de que este tipo de comportamientos suelen tener razones humanitarias y en consideración al consentimiento de la víctima, se castiga de forma mucho más benigna esta conducta que el homicidio común.

Los requisitos para aplicar este tipo son los siguientes:

  • Que exista una petición expresa e inequívoca del enfermo para cooperar o causar su muerte.
  • No se exige la situación de una situación terminal sino de enfermedad grave que llevaría a la muerte, o padecimientos graves permanentes, concepto jurídico indeterminado susceptible de varias interpretaciones.
  • Que se coopere a su muerte con actos necesarios o que se le cause directamente la muerte.

En relación con el consentimiento o petición del enfermo se requiere que sea expresa (verbal o escrita), seria e inequívoca. Debe ser producto de la reflexión y la voluntad del enfermo no debe dar lugar a dudas sobre si ha existido o no, por lo que no puede inferirse de actos presuntos.

Recuerde sobre la Eutanasia

La eutanasia es el comportamiento que, de acuerdo con la voluntad o interés de otra persona que padece una lesión o enfermedad incurable, generalmente mortal, que le causa graves sufrimientos y afecta considerablemente a su calidad de vida, da lugar a la producción, anticipación o no aplazamiento de la vida del afectado.

Se regula en el artículo 143.4 del Código Penal y tipifica sólo la eutanasia activa directa. No entran dentro del tipo penal la eutanasia pasiva ni la indirecta. Requiere: muerte del sujeto pasivo, consentimiento en forma de petición, petición expresa seria e inequívoca por el titular del derecho a la vida, que el peticionario se encuentre en situación de enfermedad grave que le conduciría a la muerte o sufriera graves padecimientos permanentes e insoportables.

Nadie duda de la mala redacción del artículo 143.4 del Código Penal español, pero es la que tenemos actualmente. La pena (muy atenuada) aplicada al delito de eutanasia, según la situación, puede llegar hasta dos años, con lo que el sujeto activo puede solicitar la suspensión de la ejecución de la pena. Paralelamente, el suicidio asistido no existe en nuestro Derecho, por lo que, de regularse, habría que crearlo como novedad.

Fuente: Alvarez Abogados Tenerife

Artículo original: Eutanasia: Delito inducción y cooperación al suicidio

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