Paolo Gerbaudo en Adeje: «no hay democracia sin soberanía popular»

Paolo Gerbaudo.

Actualmente la gran mayoría de partidos políticos tienen discursos que rozan el populismo  y lo emplean como herramienta para acercarse a una comunidad política o conjunto ciudadano. 

«En un discurso populista se utiliza al pueblo como sujeto universal», aseguró el Profesor en Cultura, Medios de Comunicación e Industrias Creativas del King’ s College London, Paolo Gerbaudo, quien además abordó en su ponencia «Comunicar el Populismo» que toda la «crisis social, medioambiental, económica, política, etc., ha puesto de manifiesto un malestar generalizado en la sociedad con respecto al sistema político que  no sienten como suyo ya que no responde a sus demandas».

Frente a esta situación, el ponente explica que el populismo surge de diferentes maneras y un  ejemplo de ello se encuentra en «la frustración y decepción de las personas más jóvenes, que desconfían de quienes les han gobernado con anterioridad». El profesor aseguró que «los movimientos populistas necesitan liderazgo al igual que la política moderna necesita de la soberanía nacional para alcanzar al aceptación social».

Para entender esto es preciso explicar los diferentes significados de populismo, «analizando la literatura es posible identificar significados muy diferentes de dicho concepto, el cual se presenta como forma del discurso político o como contenido del mismo». En el primero de los casos, «la idea del populismo sirve para explicar por qué se puede encontrar tan fácilmente este tipo de alegato en partidos de derecha o de izquierda, las características  claves de este discurso es el apelo al pueblo contra las élites, la lógica de la unidad, la visión salvadora, etc, reflejadas en un líder con carisma», definió el ponente.

En el caso del populismo como contenido del discurso político,  Paolo Gerbaudo, detalló que «el populismo no se presenta como un significante vacío, al contrario, el contenido, en este caso, es la demanda de soberanía popular que se levanta cuando se siente amenazada por agentes oligárquicos. Pr ello, hoy en día se habla de populismo, soberanía y soberanismo».

En este sentido, el profesor comentó «si analizamos el espacio político que existe desde la revolución francesa, encontraremos una dimensión dual: partidos de izquierda y de derecha, pero, actualmente, ya no tenemos esa perspectiva y lo cierto es que todos los partidos utilizan el discurso populista como herramienta».

No hay democracia sin soberanía

El Profesor en Cultura, Medios de Comunicación e Industrias Creativas del King’ s College London, Paolo Gerbaudo, detalla que «el discurso populista se enfoca en la construcción de un sentido de unidad en el que la percepción del pueblo, al que se considera una masa fragmentada y dividida, necesita atravesar un proceso de fusión activa».

Para que esta realidad se produzca, el experto, basándose en el filósofo Ernesto Laclau, reivindica  que «la construcción de la unidad se desarrolla a través de una oposición al enemigo y sólo oponiéndose a él, el pueblo tomará conciencia de sí mismo». Para Gerbaudo, esta unidad puede ser incluyente, es decir, todos los sectores pueden enriquecer o por el contrario, excluyente, la más peligrosa, donde se aliena sobre todo a colectivos considerados como minoritarios.

El profesor nuevamente hace referencia al filósofo al afirmar que «la construcción de la unidad opera a través de un significante vacío, carente de significado, porque el concepto ha perdido toda idea o símbolo de su propia especifidad y es precisamente esa ambigüedad la que facilita el populismo».

«No decidimos la evolución de la historia, somos parte de ella y hemos podido comprobar, con el pasar del tiempo, que el sistema capitalista se reinventa y vuelve a empezar y es por ello que, seguimos viviendo en el inter-reino, ese período que sucede previo al cambio, y todo lo que está ocurriendo tiene que ver con este proceso», profundizó el profesor.

Gerbaudo  insistió en que «tenemos que dejar de confundir conceptos, no es lo mismo el internacionalismo que la globalización, la primera trata de la unión entre las naciones, que de forma conjunta, trabaja por un bien común y la segunda, hace referencia al mercado». «Somos el producto de la historia», afirma, «y es necesario entender que las diferencias no son una barrera, al contrario son oportunidades. La solidaridad, la comprensión y aceptación de esas diferencias es lo que nos hará más tolerables, porque entenderemos a las demás personas».

«Debemos encontrar un nuevo balance que conceda lo justo a cada país. Tenemos que hablar en términos de independencia basada en la aceptación de la diferencia, ya que hacer lo contrario es lo que está generando la xenofobia, el nacionalismo extremo, la discrepancia y el odio entre las personas, por lo tanto, es necesario buscar una Europa confederada en la que el sentido de identidad de los países, sea la base de la colaboración del conjunto».

 

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