Sobre los blooms de Trichodesmium o microalgas en Canarias se ha informado transparente y puntual

NASA image created by Norman Kuring, NASA Ocean Color. Caption by Michael Carlowicz and Norman Kuring. Prof. Ilana Berman-Frank.

El estado de las aguas de las islas está catalogado como ‘Excelente’ por la Comisión Europea, según los informes de los últimos cuatro años.

Los aumentos anómalos de temperatura, la disminución del viento y los aportes de polvo sahariano son los factores que favorecen que esta microalga aumente su tasa de reproducción y se acumule en la superficie del mar formando los llamados blooms.

La consejera de Política Territorial, Sostenibilidad y Seguridad del Gobierno de Canarias, Nieves Lady Barreto, y el consejero de Sanidad, José Manuel Baltar, defendieron hoy durante su intervención parlamentaria que la estrategia de comunicación seguida desde ambas consejerías ante la aparición de los blooms en aguas de las Islas, “ha sido la correcta y proporcionada”. “Desde el minuto cero hemos actuado de acuerdo al protocolo de seguridad y emergencias establecido.   Ofreciendo información sobre este evento a través de los medios de comunicación de manera puntual, transparente y con rigor”, según manifestaron Baltar y Barreto.

Además, ambos exigieron a la oposición parlamentaria que se confiara en los informes elaborados por los técnicos de Sanidad y Política Territorial, expertos con más de 30 años de antigüedad que han ejercido su trabajo “con total independencia y profesionalidad para prácticamente todos los grupos políticos”.

El consejero de Sanidad del Gobierno de Canarias, José Manuel Baltar, precisó que el órgano sanitario ha cumplido con su obligación de proteger la salud de la población, “adoptando siempre las medidas proporcionadas al riesgo que se pretende evitar. Son las mismas que se adoptan en todos los países y regiones del mundo desarrollado, que se ven afectados por este fenómeno natural, desde Australia, California, Hawai, Florida, etcétera”.

El responsable sanitario del Gobierno de Canarias precisó que durante el tiempo que ha durado el avistamiento de los blooms en las zonas de baño de las islas, “no se han detectado efectos para la población asociados a este fenómeno”. Por lo que, aclara que el sistema sanitario público no ha constatado un incremento en el número de casos de afecciones en la piel, superior al previsto en esta época del año.

En relación a la comunicación transmitida a los medios informativos desde ambas consejerías sobre la floración masiva de Trichodesmium erythraeum, Baltar especifica que se han ofrecido tres ruedas de prensa, donde han participado tanto los directores generales de ambas consejerías como los técnicos y científicos , un vídeo  con recomendaciones por parte del propio consejero, seis comunicados oficiales remitidos a los medios y más de un centenar de intervenciones de los técnicos en  prensa, radios, televisiones y digitales. También se han resuelto 147 dudas de ciudadanos a través de la plataforma CanariasSaludable.org, integrada en Salud Pública.

José Manuel Baltar precisó –una vez más- que la calidad de las playas de Canarias es “Excelente”, según los informes elaborados por la Comisión Europea. De hecho, en los dos últimos meses se han realizado más de 822 inspecciones en las playas y 1.632 análisis de las aguas de baño. Mientras que en lo que va de año se han llevado a cabo 4.066 análisis en las aguas y 2.105 inspecciones en el litoral.

Las conclusiones del informe elaborado por los doctores en Oceanografía Javier Aristegui, Antonio González y Mar Benavides sobre la presencia de la cianobacteria Trichodesmium en aguas de Canarias y los episodios de acumulación masiva en el verano de 2017.

Por su parte, Nieves Lady Barreto indicó que el informe elaborado por el equipo de científicos formado por Javier Arístegui, Antonio J. González Ramos y Mar Benavides, pone de manifiesto que el Trichodesmium no es una cianobacteria invasora y vive en aguas de Canarias durante todo el año formando filamentos aislados. “Son los aumentos anómalos de temperatura, la disminución del viento y los aportes de polvo sahariano los que favorecen que esta microalga aumente su tasa de reproducción y se acumule en la superficie del mar formando los llamados blooms”, señaló la consejera.

Durante su intervención, Barreto defendió el trabajo realizado a lo largo de estos meses por los técnicos de Sanidad y Medio Ambiente, funcionarios de la Comunidad Autónoma que a lo largo de tres meses, con más de un centenar de intervenciones en prensa escrita, radio y televisión, se han encargado de trasmitir a la población toda la información disponible sobre este fenómeno y trasladar un mensaje de tranquilidad. “Ante un fenómeno natural como este, son las opiniones de los técnicos y científicos las que deben llegar a los ciudadanos con información veraz”, señaló.

Los dos departamentos del Gobierno han actuado coordinadamente desde el primer avistamiento, cuando se puso en marcha en protocolo habitual del 1-1-2 ante la detección de manchas en la costa. Hemos aplicado los procedimientos normales que ya se aplican en otros países ante la aparición de estos afloramientos masivos en las costas.

“Hay registros de blooms en los tres grandes océanos, pero los más extensos se dan en aguas tropicales y subtropicales del Océano Atlántico y en el Pacífico Sur Occidental”, aclaró, basándose en los datos del estudio elaborado por el equipo de oceanógrafos.

Durante su intervención, recordó que Canarias vivió episodios de 2004 y 2011, que también se produjeron por las causas ya señaladas, con la diferencia respecto a 2017 de que este verano las condiciones que favorecen el desarrollo de los blooms se han mantenido, de forma más o menos continuada, a lo largo de casi tres meses con temperaturas anormalmente elevadas, reducción considerable de la intensidad del viento, la casi desaparición del Alisio y varios episodios de calima.

“Estudios realizados por el propio Javier Arístegui han constatado que las últimas décadas la temperatura superficial del agua en Canarias ha ido aumentando progresivamente y lo seguirá haciendo en el futuro debido al calentamiento global”, señaló Barreto, que recalcó que el informe señala que el aumento de temperatura se ha visto reflejada en llegada a las Islas de una gran variedad de especies marinas en los últimos años procedentes de regiones más cálidas y tropicales.

Nieves Lady Barreto hizo hincapié en que, tal y como señalan los expertos, las imágenes vía satélite, así como las tomadas por los helicópteros del GES, indican que los blooms se forman en aguas abiertas, se acumulan en zonas de convergencia y son arrastrados hacia las costas siguiendo los patrones de circulación costera.

Cuando las manchas son arrastradas a la costa, quedan a menudo retenidas en playas, bahías y muelles, adquiriendo un aspecto lechoso de color verde o púrpura y olor desagradable, lo que indica que el bloom está en fase terminal y sin capacidad de reactivarse con ningún aporte de nutrientes.

Los expertos explican en su informe que no han encontrado ninguna evidencia de que el agua procedente de vertidos residuales en la costa haya podido reactivar o producir estos blooms costeros de Trichodesmium. Su desarrollo ha seguido un patrón coherente en todas las islas, independientemente de que estuvieran o no potencialmente afectadas por áreas con vertidos.

Nieves Lady Barreto hizo entrega de una copia del informe de Javier Aristegui, Antonio González y Mar Benavides a todos los diputados asistentes a la comisión y explicó que también está disponible en la web del Gobierno de Canarias para su consulta y descarga.

http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/opencmsweb/export/sites/medioambiente/piac/galerias/descargas/Documentos/informacion_ambiental/Informe-VMA-Bloom-Trichodesmium_SITMA-reducido.pdf

 

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