Un 30% de tumores serían evitables en la menopausia corrigiendo solo factores de riesgo como la obesidad o el alcohol

Eva Iglesias.

La Dra. Eva Iglesias, especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia en el Hospital Valme de Sevilla, habló esta mañana sobre el cáncer de mama en la menopausia, haciendo hincapié en el alto número de tumores que se pueden evitar corrigiendo tan solo factores como la dieta y evitando el sedentarismo o el consumo de alcohol.

Otros temas destacados en esta última jornada del congreso fueron los avances de la radioterapia en ginecología oncológica o los nuevos retos para la menopausia, entre los que se encuentra la ginecoestética, una nueva subespecialidad de la Ginecología que aporta soluciones para mejorar la funcionalidad y la estética de la zona vulvo-vaginal.

El XV Congreso Nacional de la Asociación Española para el Estudio de la Menopausia (AEEM) llega hoy sábado a su fin después de tres intensas jornadas de trabajo y debate sobre las novedades en todo lo que afecta a esta importante etapa de la vida de la mujer.

La Dra. Eva Iglesias, ginecóloga del Hospital de Valme en Sevilla habló hoy sobre el cáncer de mama en la menopausia, aportando unas cifras interesantes. Según indicó la especialista, “un 30% de los tumores serían evitables en la menopausia corrigiendo únicamente factores de riesgo como la obesidad o el sedentarismo, la dieta o el consumo de alcohol”. La doctora hizo un repaso sobre el cáncer de mama en la menopausia viendo las estadísticas y cifras en mujeres mayores de 50 años, repasando estos factores de riesgo, detallando cómo son las pruebas para el cribado (que comienzan también a partir de los 50 años) y por último abordando el tratamiento de los síntomas de la menopausia en mujeres que tienen un cáncer de mama. La Dra. Iglesias señaló que “una de cada 8 mujeres padecerá un cáncer de mama a nivel mundial”.

Avances de la radioterapia en ginecología oncológica

El Dr. Pedro Lara, jefe de Oncología Radioterápica del Hospital Universitario Dr. Negrín  de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y director del Instituto Canario de Investigación contra el cáncer fue el encargado de la ponencia ‘Avances de la radioterapia en la ginecología oncológica”. Según explicó el Dr. Lara, en el cáncer de mama ha habido un gran cambio en cuanto a la importancia que tiene la asistencia oncológica. “Este tipo de cáncer es el más frecuente en la mujer, un cáncer que gracias a los programas de diagnóstico precoz, nueve de cada diez mujeres se diagnostican en estadios tempranos de la enfermedad y eso ha hecho que los tratamientos mutilantes como la mastectomía sean hoy reservados para casos en los que no hay opción de conservar la mama”. Por tanto, se pretende que toda mujer con cáncer de mama tenga una cirugía conservadora de la mama que por obligación debe llevar asociada radioterapia.

Los tratamientos de radioterapia en el cáncer de mama han sufrido también una evolución tecnológica muy importante pasando en hacer el tratamiento más cómodo para los pacientes (antes se tardaba entre 5 y 7 semanas en administrar el tratamiento) y hoy en día se ha reducido a 3 semanas, siendo muy cómo para los pacientes porque se puede dar más dosis de radiación en el lecho tumoral. “Pero además hemos podido individualizar el tratamiento gracias a la identificación de los perfiles moleculares de los pacientes, de tal forma que hay pacientes que podemos  hacer su tratamiento mediante braquiterapia, que es poner fuentes de radiación en el lecho tumoral en cinco días. Somos el centro español con más experiencia en radioterapia intraoperatoria de la mama. Esto significa que en el mismo acto quirúrgico, cuando se ha resecado el tumor, se aplica una radioterapia intraoperatoria durante unos 20 minutos, lo cual será igual que esas 5 ó 7 semanas que antiguamente necesitaban los pacientes”, explica el especialista del Hoospital Universitario Dr. Negrín. Por tanto, podemos decir que los avances han ido en dos aspectos fundamentales: mejorar y hacer más cómodo el tratamiento y adaptar el tratamiento de una forma individualizada a lo que necesita cada paciente.

Nuevos retos en ginecoestética

El Dr. Rafael Sánchez Borrego, presidente de la Fundación Española para el Estudio de la Menopausia (FEEM) fue el encargado de abordar la ginecoestética, uno de los nuevos retos para la menopausia. La cirugía íntima o ginecoestética están destinadas a corregir problemas funcionales o estéticos del área genital femenina. Los últimos estudios sobre cirugía plástica señalan a la cirugía íntima como una de las de mayor crecimiento en España. Parece, pues, que el área genital femenina va dejando de ser un tabú y cada vez son más las mujeres preocupadas por la funcionalidad y estética de esta parte de su cuerpo.

El paso del tiempo, los embarazos e incluso la propia genética son las causantes de problemas en los genitales femeninos. Pueden presentarse tanto en mujeres jóvenes como en más maduras provocando molestias a la hora de practicar deporte o tener relaciones sexuales, aspecto irregular de la cavidad vaginal o inconvenientes a la hora de utilizar prendas ajustadas.

Según el Dr. Sánchez Borrego, “los ginecólogos tenemos que dar respuesta a esta creciente demanda por parte de la mujer de mejorar no solo la funcionalidad de su área genital sino también la estética”. En este sentido, destacó la “efectividad y seguridad” de los novedosos tratamientos con láser para dar solución a problemas como la incontinencia urinaria, la sequedad vaginal o la mejora de la satisfacción sexual en la mujer tras curar por ejemplo un cáncer de mama, etc.

Éxito de participación

Con la jornada de hoy finaliza con gran éxito de participación esta XV edición del Congreso Nacional de la Asociación Española para el Estudio de la Menopausia (AEEM), en la que se han dado cita cerca de 500 profesionales sanitarios tales como ginecólogos, médicos de familia, traumatólogos, médicos rehabilitadores, reumatólogos, urólogos, dermatólogos, oftalmólogos, endocrinólogos, farmacéuticos, matronas o enfermeros, con el fin de conocer todas las novedades de esta etapa de la mujer y poder ofrecer una mayor información a sus pacientes.

 

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