Defectos en la construcción y plazos para reclamar

Tanto si es propietario como si es administrador de fincas, debe conocer cómo proceder cuando detecta defectos en la construcción de su vivienda o local. Hablamos de los vicios o defectos en la construcción de inmuebles y, especialmente, en la promoción de viviendas. Este tipo de problemas puede afectar tanto a personas individualizadas como a comunidades de propietarios; y, en la mayoría de los casos, el conflicto con el promotor de la obra termina en pleito.

Defectos de la construcción en vivienda, local o nave

Anotar todas las irregularidades que encontremos en la vivienda, local o nave. Es de interés que antes de elaborar el inventario, consulte con sus vecinos, de haberlos, para verificar si los desperfectos sólo le afectan a usted. Elaborado este inventario de desperfectos, se debe remitir a la promotora o constructora. Debemos lograr que quede constancia de esta notificación. Por eso, se recomienda:

Es muy recomendable que en su notificación incluya el dictamen de algún perito. Éste debería ser arquitecto, aparejador o ingeniero industrial. Podrá señalar los defectos detectados, su origen, el responsable de los mismos y una propuesta de resolución. También puede realizar esta notificación por medio de su Abogado. Esto es lo más recomendable, ya que podrá asesorarle desde el primer momento. Además, es fácil que se lo tomen más en serio que a un particular, y puede ir preparando el camino para una eventual reclamación judicial.

¿Cómo planteo la reclamación por defectos de la edificación?

Conviene que al inventario de desperfectos lo acompañe un dictamen pericial, en el cual se determine el alcance de los mismos, su causa, y una propuesta de solución. Así, al notificar los daños, daremos opción al promotor o constructor para que los repare o abone la reparación.

Si la promotora o constructora no reparara las irregularidades notificadas, es el momento de acudir a un especialista. Su Abogado estudiará su caso particular para trazar una estrategia procesal óptima, que dependerá de las circunstancias del caso. Debe individualizar, a ser posible, al responsable. Para ello puede ayudarle su perito. Además, la acción deberá ejercitarse antes de su prescripción, cuando los daños se produzcan en el plazo de garantía. Es importante que si realiza las reparaciones por su cuenta, las documente, de modo que pueda aportar pruebas posteriormente en sede judicial.

¿Qué son los defectos de acabado?

Daños materiales por vicios o defectos de ejecución que afecten a elementos de terminación o acabado de las obras. Además de ser relativamente comunes, los promotores y constructores suelen hacerse cargo de los mismos, cuando son debidamente notificados. En caso contrario, la LOE establece un plazo de garantía de un año para la reclamación.

¿Qué son los defectos de habitabilidad?

Se definen como defectos de habitabilidad aquellos que no garanticen, según las estipulaciones reglamentarias:

  • La higiene, salud y protección del medio ambiente.
  • La protección contra el ruido.
  • El ahorro de energía y aislamiento térmico.
  • Otros aspectos funcionales constructivos o de las instalaciones que permitan un uso satisfactorio del edificio.

En definitiva, se trata de defectos muy problemáticos, ya que suelen detectarse tras la entrega del inmueble. Suelen manifestarse como goteras, humedades, malos olores, ruidos… Además, muchas veces se agravan con el tiempo. Dada la gravedad de estos defectos:

  1. Deberá notificarlos también al arquitecto director de obra y al aparejador director de ejecución. Éstos profesionales son responsables de salvaguardar la vivienda de este tipo de defectos, muchas veces derivados de mala praxis o de ahorro de costes.
  2. Serán muy costosos de reparar, por lo que es difícil obtener satisfacción extrajudicial.
  3. El plazo de garantía se extiende a tres años.

¿Qué son defectos relativos a la estabilidad y seguridad estructural del edificio?

Son los defectos más graves y, afortunadamente, los menos comunes. Los defectos relativos a la estabilidad y seguridad del edificio son daños que comprometen directamente su resistencia mecánica y estabilidad, por afectar a:

  • Cimentación.
  • Muros de carga.
  • Otros elementos estructurales.

Se notificarán como los defectos de habitabilidad ya analizados. Su gravedad hará casi seguro que tenga que valerse de profesionales para reclamarlos. Necesitará contar, al menos, con un abogado y un perito, ambos especialistas, pues muy raramente se ofrecerá solución extrajudicial. Por ello, el plazo de garantía en estos casos se extiende a diez años.

¿A quién debo reclamar los defectos de la construcción?

Esta cuestión dependerá de las circunstancias del caso. La responsabilidad civil se exige de forma personal e individualizada. Pero cuando no puede individualizarse al responsable, se establece un sistema de responsabilidad solidaria. El promotor siempre responde solidariamente por daños materiales ocasionados por vicios o defectos de construcción. Además, el art. 17 LOE establece ciertas particularidades en cuanto a la responsabilidad de los agentes de la edificación.

¿Cómo funcionan las garantías por defectos de la construcción?

Durante los plazos indicados, la constructora y promotora y, en su caso, el arquitecto director de obra y el aparejador director de ejecución, responderán por los daños de los que sean responsables. Por ello, es importante notificar dichos defectos de edificación en  los plazos indicados.

Desde esa notificación, tendrá un plazo de prescripción de dos años para ejercitar la acción de reclamación judicial. Puede interrumpir este plazo mediante notificaciones fehacientes de que el problema persiste o se ha agravado.

¿Cuándo empieza a computar el plazo de garantía?

Es fundamental advertir que las garantías no empiezan a computar desde que se otorgue escritura de compraventa, sino desde que se suscribe acta de recepción o se entiende tácitamente producida.

Transcurrido este plazo, no podrá ejercitarse esta acción especial, lo cual es extremadamente problemático. Y ello toda vez que podemos haber comprado la vivienda una vez transcurrido este plazo. Aunque el caso parezca improbable, lo cierto es que es bastante frecuente. Esto ocurre, por ejemplo, con los parques inmobiliarios de entidades financieras, adquiridos a constructoras concursadas o desaparecidas. Pero no todo está perdido, ya que nos asisten otras acciones, sujetas a sus respectivos plazos de prescripción. Por ello resulta fundamental la asistencia de un letrado especialista.

Por ello, es especialmente aconsejable depurar con precisión las posibles responsabilidades en las que pudieran haber incurrido el arquitecto y/o el arquitecto técnico y, de inmediato, dirigirles una primera reclamación extrajudicial por conducto fehaciente.

Fuente: Alvarez Abogados Tenerife

 

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