5 consejos sobre el ejercicio del derecho de desistimiento por compras en internet

Por Javier de Cabo, abogado de LABE Abogados

El derecho de desistimiento nos permite devolver al empresario ese producto que no se ajusta a lo esperado o que realmente no necesitábamos y, todo ello, sin costes para el consumidor.

¿Cuántas veces hemos solicitado un producto por internet, confiados en la publicidad ofrecida por el empresario, para terminar recibiendo algo que jamás habríamos comprado? ¿Cuántas veces nos hemos arrepentido en el último minuto de haber hecho “clic” con el ratón? El derecho de desistimiento nos permite devolver al empresario ese producto que no se ajusta a lo esperado o que realmente no necesitábamos y, todo ello, sin costes para el consumidor.

+ ¿Qué consumidores pueden ejercitar el derecho de desistimiento?
a Aquellos a los que el empresario haya reconocido ese derecho en la oferta de contratación, en la promoción o publicidad del producto o cuando se lo haya concedido en el contrato. Además, existen supuestos en los que el empresario está obligado legalmente a otorgar ese derecho al consumidor, como es el caso de los contratos a distancia (entre ellos, los contratos celebrados a través de internet) o los contratos celebrados fuera del establecimiento mercantil del empresario.

+ ¿Cómo saber si en el contrato que he celebrado se me reconoce este derecho?
En los casos en los que el derecho está reconocido por la propia legislación, se impone al empresario la obligación de informar de su existencia al consumidor. En el resto de contratos, aunque el empresario no esté obligado a reconocer el derecho de desistimiento al consumidor, para el caso de que lo haga este figurará también en el contrato o en la publicidad. Por lo tanto, bastará con comprobar que en el contrato se recoja una cláusula en la que se nombre al “derecho de desistimiento”. Así mismo, el empresario debe entregar al consumidor un documento de desistimiento que posibilite el ejercicio del mismo.
En caso de que el empresario incumpla alguna de estas obligaciones, el legislador ha dispuesto sanciones que pasan por aumentar los plazos reconocidos al consumidor para ejercitar sus derechos frente a tales empresarios.

+ ¿Cómo ejercitar el derecho de desistimiento?
El ejercicio del derecho de desistimiento no está sujeto a ninguna formalidad específica, por tanto, el consumidor puede utilizar cualquier medio para ejercitarlo. No obstante, en caso de controversia, la ley impone al consumidor la obligación de probar que ha ejercitado el derecho de desistimiento dentro del plazo, por lo que es recomendable usar medios que con posterioridad permitan al consumidor probar que efectivamente se utilizó este derecho y la fecha en la que se ejercitó, por ejemplo, aquellos que dejen constancia escrita (a través del documento de desistimiento facilitado por el empresario, mediante el envío de un correo electrónico, mensaje mensajes de texto, whatsapps, etc.).

+ ¿Puedo ejercitar este derecho cómo y cuándo yo quiera?
Sí y no. El ejercicio de este derecho no está sujeto a justificación de ningún tipo, esto quiere decir que el consumidor no tiene que dar explicaciones al empresario de los motivos por los que devuelve el producto. Sin embargo, sólo puede ejercitarse durante un plazo legal de 14 días naturales (salvo que el empresario reconozca al consumidor un plazo mayor) y el consumidor debe devolver el producto de que se trate al empresario (siendo los gastos y costes de la devolución de cuenta del empresario, salvo que se hubiera pactado otra cosa).

+ ¿En qué contratos NO se reconoce este derecho al consumidor?
a) Contratos de prestación de servicios, cuando el servicio se haya prestado íntegramente (Solicitud de comida a domicilio, cuando la comida ya ha sido elaborada y entregada).
b) Contratos de suministro de bienes o prestación de servicios cuyo precio sea variable según las condiciones del mercado.
c) Contratos de suministro de bienes confeccionados conforme a las especificaciones del consumidor y usuario o claramente personalizados (Como es el caso de la confección de un traje a medida).
d) Contratos de suministro de bienes que puedan deteriorarse o caducar con rapidez.
d) Contratos de suministro de bienes precintados que no sean aptos para ser devueltos por razones de protección de la salud o de higiene y que hayan sido desprecintados tras la entrega (Por ejemplo, ropa interior).
h) Los contratos en los que el consumidor y usuario haya solicitado específicamente al empresario que le visite para efectuar operaciones de reparación o mantenimiento urgente.
i) El suministro de grabaciones sonoras o de vídeo que estén precintadas, o de programas informáticos precintados que hayan sido desprecintados por el consumidor y usuario después de la entrega.
k) Los contratos celebrados mediante subastas públicas.
l) El suministro de servicios de alojamiento para fines distintos del de servir de vivienda.
m) Transporte de bienes.
n) Alquiler de vehículos.
ñ) Suministro de contenido digital, cuando la ejecución haya comenzado y se haya informado al consumidor que pierde su derecho de desistimiento. (Netflix, HbO, Canal +, etc.)

 

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