10 consecuencias del impago de la pensión de alimentos

La pensión de alimentos es una de las medidas más controvertidas que se establecen en el Convenio regulador de un divorcio o una separación cuando la pareja tiene hijos. Tiene que incluir, según el artículo 142 de Código Civil, todos los elementos indispensables para la manutención de los hijos, vestido, habitación, asistencia médica… Su cuantía se fija en función de las necesidades de los hijos y de la situación económica de los cónyuges.

Desde nuestra experiencia, son muchas las razones por las que un cónyuge puede decidir impagar la pensión de alimentos, desde las desavenencias con el otro cónyuge, incluso con los propios hijos, hasta por un cambio de la situación económica, la creencia de pensar que el dinero se destina al excónyuge para sus gastos o, simplemente, intentar dañar a la otra parte. Antes de tomar una decisión de este tipo, conviene hacer una reflexión seria y analizar las consecuencias que pueden acarrear y lo que le tocará asumir.

1. La reclamación de las cantidades impagadas

Los hijos o el excónyuge o la expareja en representación de ellos o, incluso, el Ministerio Fiscal le pueden reclamar los impagos desde el primer mes y hasta los últimos cinco años. Si el impago es parcial, también podrá reclamar las cantidades dejadas de percibir.

Seguramente, ante un primer impago recibirá una reclamación de la expareja o de su abogado, a la que, si no contesta o declina cumplir, vendrán otras por la vía judicial.

2. Procedimiento civil de ejecución de sentencia o del acuerdo homologado judicialmente

Si, aquí ya empieza el conflicto a tomar forma y sus gastos comenzarán a aumentar, ya que necesitará asistencia letrada y un procurador. En el procedimiento civil se requerirá el pago con sus intereses y si no hay razón para justificar el impago el juez podrá tomar medidas adicionales.

3. Multas coercitivas

Si los impagos son reiterados el juez, en virtud del artículo 776.1º de la Ley 1/2000 de Enjuiciamiento Civil podrá establecer multas coercitivas, procurando que pague las mensualidades que debe, por lo que surge un nuevo riesgo de que el impago pueda salirle más caro.

4. Embargo de salarios o de otros bienes

Si sigue optando por no abonar la pensión de alimentos, el juez puede decretar el embargo de su salario (excepto del salario mínimo interprofesional, hay Juzgados como el de Gijón que lo consideran embargable), de rentas, cuentas bancarias o cualquier otro bien o derecho.

Si esta trabajando y consigue que le despidan para cobrar el paro, tiene que saber que también el paro es embargable e, incluso, la indemnización por despido que haya cobrado.

Hay quienes recurren al trabajo en negro para no tener que rendir cuentas y ocultar sus ingresos, en este caso, tenga cuidado ya que, si pueden demostrar que esta en esa situación, el juez, además de obligarle a pagar las cantidades impagadas más sus intereses, podría (ya por la vía penal) condenarle al pago de una multa por un delito de abandono de familia.

5. Proceso penal por delito de impago de alimentos y puedes terminar en la cárcel…

La pena que establece el Código Penal ante el impago de alimentos por quien está obligado a hacerlo, es de 3 meses a 1 año de prisión o multa de 6 a 24 meses.

El procedimiento penal se puede iniciar cuando se dejan de pagar durante dos meses consecutivos o cuatro meses no consecutivos, la pensión de alimentos establecida en Convenio judicialmente aprobado o en Sentencia de Divorcio, Separación o Nulidad matrimonial, según establece el artículo 227 del Código Penal. La vía penal y civil se pueden iniciar una después de otra o al mismo tiempo.

Y aunque una sentencia llegue a establecer hasta un año de prisión. la pena puede quedar sin ser efectiva al no superar los dos años. No obstante, el Juzgado de Vigo decretó el ingreso en prisión a un padre por el impago reiterado de la pensión llegando a tener, en su caso, tres sentencias condenatorias.

6. …o con el pago de una multa

Como hemos comentado, el juez podrá establecer una multa de 6 a 24 meses. Pero hay que tener presente que, si no se abona la pena de multa, ésta se convierte en una pena de prisión, correspondiente un día de prisión por cada dos cuotas impagadas.

7. Pagar las costas del proceso

Si, además, las sentencias son condenatorias, bien en el procedimiento civil, bien en el procedimiento penal, o en ambos, el juez puede establecer el pago de las costas procesales, lo que, en sí mismo, encarece mucho más el proceso y, puede, todavía más, complicarle su situación económica.

8. Antecedentes penales

En el caso de una sentencia condenatoria en el ámbito penal, el delito de impago de pensiones supone la existencia de antecedentes penales (que se podrán cancelar una vez que transcurra el tiempo para ello en virtud de la sentencia dictada y de la pena impuesta en la misma) con las consecuencias que puede tener si vuelve a cometer delitos con pena de prisión.

9. Deterioro irreversible de la relación con la expareja…

Seguramente cuando tome la decisión de impagar la pensión de alimentos la relación con la expareja pueda ser muy conflictiva, el impago será la puntilla, para romper cualquier hilo de comunicación.

10. …y con los hijos

Pero este hilo, puede llegar a alcanzar a los hijos, sobre todo, cuanto más conscientes son de las relaciones paternofiliales. Hay que sopesar, también, el impacto que puede tener a futuro con ellos. Más aún, cuando los hijos mayores de edad gozan también de este derecho hasta que alcancen su total independencia económica.

En cualquier caso, antes de proceder tomar una decisión de este calado, le recomendamos asesorarse con un abogado experto en asuntos de familia, ya que, si el motivo es que está pasando por dificultades económicas, siempre cabe la posibilidad de tratar de negociar o solicitar una modificación de medidas.

Fuente: Alvarez Abogados Tenerife

Artículo original: 10 consecuencias del impago pensión de alimentos

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