La economía colaborativa: la nueva economía en la que mi consumidor es mi competidor

Javier Rovira. ASSOPRESS. A lo largo de los últimos años, y de manera incremental, estamos viendo como la llamada economía colaborativa crece y se expande en diferentes sectores. Este desarrollo se ve ya como una amenaza en diferentes sectores como el hotelero (AirBnb), el del taxi (Uber) o el transporte público (BlaBlaCar), entre otros. Lejos del aspecto reivindicativo de unos u otros, la economía colaborativa es el resultado de la coincidencia en el tiempo de diferentes factores de carácter estructural por lo que, lejos de ser una moda o un hecho menor o puntual, su desarrollo será un hecho en los próximos años.

Un primer factor es el resultado de la reducción del poder adquisitivo de las personas consecuencia no solo de la reducción de los salarios en términos relativos sino del aumento de la presión fiscal y recaudatoria de las diferentes administraciones. Una presión fiscal que, previsiblemente, continuará para poder abordar no solo el pago de la deuda sino el aumento de los gastos sociales consecuencia del envejecimiento de la población que estamos experimentando, salud incluida. Esto, mientras se mantenga la lógica y las políticas actuales de cobertura. Medidas como el retraso de la edad de jubilación, la penalización por EREs no justificados o la reciente propuesta de que sea posible mantener el 100% de la pensión mientras se cobra un sueldo son solo parte de los cambios que veremos en el futuro para, por un lado, reducir el gasto social y por el otro aumentar la contribución a la hucha de la seguridad social de las persona de +65 años.




Un segundo factor, dinamizador y esencial a la vez de la economía colaborativa, es la caída de la confianza de las personas en las instituciones que nos representaban; incluyendo las marcas que habitualmente utilizamos. De todos es conocido que esta desconfianza es una de las consecuencias de la situación generada desde 2007 no solo por lo que ha supuesto el golpe económico y de bienestar a las familias sino, fundamentalmente, por todo lo descubierto en relación a la corrupción: tanto en España como en otros países. Esto y la falta de reconocimiento de responsabilidades ha llevado a esa ruptura de confianza que se ha producido y que, posiblemente, sea el factor más determinante en los cambios que están todavía por venir. A lo lardo de la historia de la humanidad y desde hace más de 200.000 años, la confianza ha sido el elemento fundamental de desarrollo de la sociedad. El ser humano, sencillamente, no puede desarrollarse sin confianza.

Ante este panorama de reducción de capacidad adquisitiva y de caída de confianza, las personas (a escala global) hay que sumarle un cambio copernicano que el concepto de propiedad ha sufrido en las últimas décadas. La sociedad industrial del  s. XX nos enseñaba que lo importante era poseer cosas y que “tanto tienes, tanto vales.” Era un mensaje necesario para mantener la estructura industrial activa no solo fabricando para aquellos que compraban por primera vez, sino para reponer mediante la generación de obsolescencia tecnológica. Ahora la situación es diferente.  Por un lado,  la persona-consumidora se enfrenta a  la disyuntiva de no disfrutar de algo deseado, por ser caro o por el bajo uso que se va a hacer de ello a lo largo de su vida útil, o de hacerlo a tiempo parcial. Por el otro, la persona-oferente, dispone de una serie de activos infrautilizados en buen estado de uso que puede ofrecer directamente a un precio muy competitivo a otra persona-consumidora por que, entre otras cosas, la persona-oferente ya ha adquirido el bien y no tiene activos productivos y por la eliminación de los diferentes intermediarios. El negocio está servido: “quiero usar algo que tú tienes y que está en buenas condiciones y pagar solo por usarlo el tiempo que lo necesite” a lo que se suma “tengo algo que tú quieres y puedo tener unos ingresos adicionales con los que no contaba antes por dejar que lo uses.”Este ejercicio de intercambio o reciprocidad o de alquiler entre particulares se viene haciendo desde que el mundo es mundo; todos lo hemos visto en momentos determinados a lo largo de nuestras vidas entre y con aquellos que nos rodeaban, familiares, amigos,…

Ha sido la tecnología la que ha puesto esteroides a todo esto par convertirlo en la hoy llamada economía colaborativa. Esta tecnología no solo nos ha permitido llegar a miles de personas con nuestro producto/servicio sino que permite conocer a la persona sobre la que tenemos que depositar nuestra confianza. Conocerla no solo por lo que ella dice de sí misma, sin por lo que los demás dicen. De la misma manera que, a lo largo de la historia, éramos sensibles a lo que los demás decían de una tercera persona, ahora la tecnología nos permite conocer la reputación y el prestigio de alguien entre los suyos y también entre terceros que han tenido alguna relación con esa persona. La diferencia ahora es que esa reputación/prestigio puede ser conocida por cientos de miles de personas…en un instante. Las personas que usan BlaBlaCar, Uber, AirBnB,…se sienten mejor cuando saben quién es quién, ven su foto, su coche, su casa,…y leen lo que los otros tienen que decir.

La economía colaborativa es, por lo tanto, un cambio radical en la manera de entender los negocios y las relaciones. La suma de la posibilidad de monetizar un patrimonio infrautilizado, la no necesidad de ser propietario de algo, la ausencia de intermediarios con todo lo que ello conlleva y la caída de la confianza en las instituciones, empresas o marcas han abonado una nueva economía de particulares que ya se está organizando y que, aunque intenten ponerle puertas al campo, se desarrollará y convivirá compitiendo con la economía tradicional. La diferencia es que, en muchos casos,  ésta tendrá que abordar que su consumidor sea al mismo tiempo su competidor. Son nuevos tiempos, una nueva época con nuevas claves y con nuevas formas de hacer las cosas. La economía colaborativa es,  por lo tanto, no solo una nueva forma de hacer las cosas sino, posiblemente, una solución a muchas otras para las que ahora no vemos salida. Y, si no, espere y vea; pero, por favor, no se lo pierda: será apasionante.

 

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