“Creaciones: Chauvet”

Por Jesús Millán Muñoz.

¿Por qué el ser humano, desde hace docenas de miles de años, necesita realizar algo, algo a lo que nosotros llamamos arte o artes, arte plástico, pero también otras artes, como la música, la narración, la danza, etc.? ¿Cómo está formado el cerebro del ser humano, su sociedad y su interrelación individuo-grupo para tener esa necesidad? ¿Cómo el ser humano fue capaz de crear esta maravilla, esta genialidad, como Chauvet hace treinta milenios, casi el doble de antiguas que Lascaux, Altamira…? ¿Por qué todavía dichas pinturas, aunque no sepamos la interpretación exacta nos maravillan, nos embelesan, nos entusiasman? ¿Viendo todo lo bueno y bello que los seres humanos han creado durante milenios, debemos sentirnos orgullosos y esperanzadores en la humanidad, en nosotros mismos?

  1. La Cueva de Chauvet, es una de las grutas que contiene pinturas prehistóricas de una época más antigua de la humanidad, ha sido considerado como Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco, se cree que es del periodos Auriñaciense, de entre el 30.000-32.000 a.C., aunque hay cierta polémica en dicha datación.  Como curiosidad otras ocupaciones posteriores de seres humanos y de otras culturas, como la gravetiense apenas dejaron pinturas. Se han encontrado huellas de niño, que pueden ser de las más antiguas del mundo, parece ser que después la cueva fue tapada por algún fenómeno natural, corrimientos de tierras, seísmo, y quedó de ese modo clausurada hasta el año 1994 que fue descubierta. Podemos sin demasiada erudición, intentar unas mínimas reflexiones:

– Se han encontrado en esta cueva representaciones de trece especies diferentes. Últimamente se ha pensado que los animales representan símbolos o signos de espiritualidad-religiosidad, otros, consideran, que serían representaciones de estados alterados de la conciencia, producidos por la situación de la misma cueva, sin luz, alumbrados por pequeñas velas o antorchas, que de alguna manera, se “movían con el movimiento de la luz y de las sombras”. Algunos que serían santuarios dónde se realizarían ritos, sean estos de caza o de iniciación, etc.

Pero lo que parece evidente es que desde la noche de los tiempos, está unido en y con  el ser humano, el arte plástico, posiblemente quizás acompañados de otras artes (música, danza, narraciones), además con elementos de espiritualidad-religiosidad, que podríamos denominar prechamánicos, con elementos sociales-culturales-económicos o de subsistencia. Y si nos fijamos bien, estas áreas o esferas o niveles nos han acompañado en todo el arte y arte religioso hasta ahora mismo. Evidentemente en mayor o menor grado.

– Los artistas que hiciesen estas pinturas, y el conjunto de la cueva, tienen la misma categoría o más que la Sixtina de Miguel Ángel, es un monumento a la humanidad y al ser humano, treinta milenios antes del Renacimiento, y cómo, parece ser, expresó Picasso, al salir de Altamira, no hemos inventado nada, al menos en arte plástico.

Cosa que nos debe llevar a una profunda reflexión, es cómo si el hombre de hace veinte o treinta milenios, en el nivel plástico hubiese llegado a lo más profundo del ser, de sí mismo, y de expresión de la realidad, interna y externa, aunque no sepamos descifrarlos dichos lenguajes, valiéndose de dibujos y pinturas y grabados. Y después, milenios después,  diríamos se han inventado técnicas, se han desarrollado pinturas más figurativas o menos, algunas concepciones o temáticas nuevas, algunas nuevas técnicas y tecnologías aplicadas a la plástica, pero nada más.

Los grandes descubrimientos estéticos plásticos, es como si el ser humano hace treinta milenios ya los hubiese encontrado o inventado o descubierto o creado, o su cerebro y su concepción esencial de la existencia, hace treinta milenios ya hubiese alcanzado la máxima madurez, al menos en la interrelación significante-significado y contenido-continente y símbolo-signo, en cuanto a lo plástico y al cerebro y a la realidad interna y externa, al menos, en algunos aspectos esenciales de la representación interna y externa del lenguaje-cerebro-cultura-realidad externa.

– Cientos de representaciones de animales, casi perfectas, al menos en sus cuerpos o en sus caras. También alguna figura que parece una Venus, una mujer, o lo que podría haber sido una mujer, y puntos y líneas y figuras…

Algunas cabezas de animales están tan, casi perfectas, que parecen podrían haber sido hechas hoy, especialmente de leones.

  1. Para finalizar, quizás debamos pensar-sentir que somos más de lo que creemos que somos, quizás también menos, menos de lo que a veces, creemos ser. Somos grandes y somos frágiles, me refiero a la humanidad, me refiero a cada uno. Hoy, ayer y mañana, debemos sentirnos orgullosos y esperanzadores de nosotros mismos, de la humanidad. No solo hemos hecho cosas malas y feas y falsas y erróneas e injustas, sino también cosas buenas, buenas llenas de bondad, llenas de verdad, llenas de racionalidad, llenas de justicia, llenas de sentido y significado, llenas de belleza. Aquí tenemos una, esta cueva de Chauvet.

http://soliloquios.blogia.com              © jmm caminero

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