“22,96 millones de presos en el mundo”

Por Jesús Millán Muñoz. 

Según el Centro Internacional para el Estudio de Prisiones, en el mundo en el año  2013 existían 22,96 millones de presos. Parece ser que el país con más presos en el mundo es Estados Unidos con 2.96 millones. El país con menos presos es la República de San Marino con solo dos presos.

  1. Este es un tema enormemente complejo y complicado, con multitud de aristas, pero no es mi intención empezar a dar cifras sino como siempre intentar profundizar en una serie de preguntas o cuestiones, entre otras muchas aunque no es posible tocar todos los temas:

– ¿Parece que casi veintitrés millones de presos en el mundo es una barbaridad en relación a los siete mil millones de personas que lo habitamos…? ¿Teniendo en cuenta, que una franja de la población, niños y niñas no entrarían dentro de esta categoría, y quizás, otra franja de ancianos y ancianas, al menos en muchos países tampoco entrarían en esta situación…?

Lo cual nos lleva a preguntarnos a la vez, ¿es que el ser humano tiene un déficit interno o las estructuras sociales llevan implícito unas deficiencias internas graves…? ¿Existen estructuras sociales, ambientes familiares, ambientes sociales que están heridos en su realidad en sí, que puede llevar a personas al límites de la legalidad jurídica?




¿Existe una relación entre personalidades psicopáticas o sociopáticas y por tanto delitos jurídicos que terminan las personas en esa situación ambiental y existencial…? ¿Existe más población de la que creemos en esa situación de personalidades psicopáticas o sociopáticas…? ¿Existen personas, que por razones conocidas o desconocidas, tanto genéticas o sociales o ambientales o educativas o psicológicas tienen al mal, al mal moral, al mal legal-jurídico…? ¿Toda persona debe ser consciente de que en su interior tiene una enorme capacidad de hacer el bien, pero también una enorme capacidad de hacer el mal, y por tanto, tiene que controlar una, para no caer en la otra, controlar el mal que puede llevar dentro, e incentivar el bien que lleva dentro…?

¿Todavía las sociedades y por tanto, las civilizaciones-culturas no están lo suficientemente desarrolladas, para evitar situaciones, o para hacer disminuir diríamos esta epidemia o este mal social e individual y personal y familiar…?

¿Siempre han existido presos en el mundo pero ahora en general es una etapa de más libertad individual y colectiva, por tanto, los individuos tienen que tener más autocontrol, y esto es para muchas personas más difícil de conseguir…?

¿No existen con claridad suficiente enseñanza de una auténtica moralidad-eticidad personal e individual, no existe una suficiente moralidad y ética a nivel social, y por tanto, muchos individuos no aprenden y aprehenden unas normas mínimas y fijas, serías y profundas, a nivel teórico y a nivel práctico para dicho fin y dicha finalidad…?

¿En las sociedades actuales a nivel social se incentivan multitud de estímulos, multitud de necesidades humanas, primarias, secundarias, terciarias y muchos individuos y familias, no las puedan satisfacer, o muchos individuos no son capaces de superar esa frustración y puede llevar al límite o a una situación de predelito jurídico…? ¿Es más ningún individuo, ninguna familia puede satisfacer todas las necesidades posibles, por los cuales se crean una situación interna de desfase entre los deseos y las pasiones o las necesidades reales o posibles o imaginarias, lo cual lleva a algunos individuos a saltarse normas morales mínimas, y normas legales tipificadas, unos individuos en unas materias y otros individuos en otras…?

¿Existen índices muy altos, al menos en algunos continentes, de desestructuración familiar, demasiados hogares con un solo progenitor e hijos, por lo cual, la endoculturación ética y moral y de buenas costumbres se puede ver dañado o mermado lo cual lleva a situaciones enormemente complejas…?

¿Los medios de comunicación masivos, a veces, no dan ejemplos de buenas conductas morales, ahora con los sistemas de internet cada individuo puede acceder a contenidos legales y no legales, morales y no morales, y muchos individuos no son capaces de superar dicha tentación…?

¿Hay parte de la población que no llega a suficiente nivel de riqueza o un nivel mínimo de riqueza material, por lo cual, sus necesidades primarias no están satisfechas lo que puede producir en algunos individuos un nivel de frustración enorme…? ¿Esto puede ser acompañado de otros problemas, familias desestructuradas gravemente, desempleo en alto nivel, nivel cultural o de estudios reducido, vivir en barrios conflictivos, etc., lo que puede llevar a lo que algunos denominar, con palabras no demasiado sofisticadas “a ser potencialmente personas que pueden cometer delitos en el futuro”?

¿Existe un constante bombardeo en los medios de comunicación social, debido a los estímulos de todo tipo de productos y deservicios, invitando constantemente a disfrutarlos o comprarlos o tenerlos, y nadie en la humanidad, nadie puede satisfacer todo, todo lo que potencialmente se ofrece, por lo cual, en algunos individuos puede llevarles a una enorme frustración, más si no tienen una moralidad correcta, o una situación psicológica adecuada, u otros parámetros similares…?

¿El aumento masivo de alcohol y de otras sustancias pone a muchas personas en el límite del delito, en otras les llevo al delito real…?

¿Se están produciendo en parte de los individuos y de determinadas franjas de la sociedad, que están al borde de la caída en el precipicio de la realización de actos no morales, y también de actos delictivos a nivel jurídico…?

¿En algunas franjas de la población o en parte de los individuos, la formación moral y psicológica en parte se produce por otros miembros de la sociedad, de su misma edad, y estos individuos, grupos o pandillas ya han rozado o atravesado la línea de la legalidad jurídica, lo cual lleva a esos individuos a caer en las mismas tentaciones…?

¿En algunos lugares o continentes, por unas razones o por otras, el control religioso moral se ha reducido enormemente, por lo cual ese gran parapeto que han sido, por lo general, las religiones y sus normas morales religiosas de que las personas alcancen una madurez mínima moral, ya muchos individuos o colectivos no los tienen o no los disponen…?

¿Muchos individuos no tienen suficiente control conceptual y afectivo sobre sus pasiones, deseos, pulsiones, libidos, instintos incluso no solo atravesando o perforando los límites éticos y morales normales y racionales, sino incluso además los límites sociojurídicos legales y vigentes…?

¿Se ha podido instalar en algunas sociedades un sentimiento de que cada uno se salta las normas morales y jurídicas que crea convenientes, unos en unos terrenos, y otros en otros…? ¿Lo cual en general crea una anomia jurídica importante y un jugar con el límite de lo legal y al borde del delito, cuándo no caer en el delito jurídico…?

  1. Existirían cuestiones aún más profundas, ¿cómo por qué los seres humanos o parte de los seres humanos necesitan saltarse normas éticas-morales mínimas universales, y por qué, algunas normas jurídicas legales, que son un delito tipificado por los distintos sistemas jurídicos sociales y culturales y políticos?

¿El coste a y en todos los niveles, de que una parte de la población se salte límites o normas jurídicas es enorme, no solo en instalaciones de centros de prisiones, sino de personas dedicadas en intentar evitar los delitos, en sancionar los delitos, etc.? ¿No podemos minimizar el coste de sufrimiento en las personas que sufren esos delitos, sus consecuencias en sus vidas personales, en sus familias, en la sociedad, e incluso en el Estado…?

¿Hay que preguntarse porque parecen que sociedades y países el índice de rectificación de las personas después de cometido el delito y después de haber cumplido la pena, es mucho mayor y en otros es menor? ¿O dicho de otro modo el índice de reincidencia es mayor o es menor…?

¿Qué podrían hacer las sociedades, las ciencias sociales y todo tipo de organismo públicos y privados para intentar, por un lado intentar se cometan los menos delitos posibles, segundo, habiéndose cometido se sancionen de la forma correcta, y en tercer lugar, esas personas no se conviertan en reincidentes, sino que diríamos puedan volver a la sociedad de una forma normal y puedan aportar a la sociedad sus oficios o sus profesiones, sus diversas actividades…?

  1. ¿Para terminar las sociedades deben incentivar la enseñanza individual y colectiva y social de normas morales y éticas mínimas y universales correctas, de costumbres sociales correctas buenas, y así de ese modo, las personas no se saltarán las normas jurídicas legales de sus sociedades….?

¿Por lo tanto, debemos plantearnos si las sociedades en general, ni a nivel individual, familiar, social, ambiental, administrativo tiene el suficiente empeño en enseñar normas morales y éticas mínimas, ni de enseñar normas jurídicas suficientes…?

¿Plantearse que las sociedades o algunas de ellas haya disminuido la aceptación de normas morales religiosas mínimas, es uno de los motivos del aumento del delito jurídico, y desde luego de saltarse normas morales mínimas aceptadas durante siglos y milenios, y el aumento del sufrimiento…? ¿Por lo cual se cae en una espiral y en sinergias negativas, a menos educación moral ética y también menos educación moral religiosa mínima y menos enseñanza social de buenas costumbres sociales, más posibilidad de sufrimiento y de angustia y de anomia moral y anarquía moral y de relativismo y escepticismo y materialismo moral, y como consecuencia más posibilidades de delito jurídico…?

http://personal.cim.es/filosofía           © jmm caminero

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