Adeje UVA. González: “La música produce mejoras en enfermedades como el Parkinson o Alzheimer”

Julián González.

El catedrático de Fisiología y Biofísica de la Universidad de La Laguna Julián González González dirige el curso de la Universidad de Verano de Adeje “La música desde la Biofísica y la Neuropsicofisiología: cerebro, pedagogía y contexto socio-cultural”. En él se repasa el recorrido de la música desde que se produce un sonido hasta que se convierte en una sensación que, al ser reconocida por el cerebro, se asocia a emociones o a procesos cognitivos de distinto tipo. De hecho, puede provocar efectos terapéuticos en determinadas dolencias: “Hay investigaciones que avalan que produce mejoras en enfermedades como el Parkinson o Alzheimer”, indica.

El director de este curso explica que la musicoterapia tiene bases científicas sólidas, pues se basa en el método científico y todos sus resultados son convenientemente experimentados y filtrados por la crítica científica. Por ello, ya existen hospitales con unidades específicas sobre esta especialidad y también hay centros de investigación sobre la materia, sobre todo en Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña.

“Científicamente, está demostrado que para determinadas dolencias puede ayudar, pero es verdad que se trata de un asunto relativamente nuevo. Hay que estudiarlo a fondo para saber qué emociones provocan los distintos tipos de música y, dentro de los fenómenos cognitivos, qué grado de incidencia pueden tener en determinadas disfunciones mentales”, detalla el catedrático de la ULL.

El estudio de la interacción música-cerebro comenzó a proliferar a finales del siglo XX, principios del XXI, coincidiendo con el desarrollo y auge da las técnicas de análisis de imagen, como la resonancia magnética y la electroencefalografía. “El efecto de la música es visible en resonancia, hay zonas que se activan y este instrumental es capaz de discriminar distintas zonas implicadas en diferentes actividades cognitivas y sensoriales”.

El curso no se ha centrado únicamente en las posibilidades de la músicoterapia, sino que ha explicado las bases biofísicas y neuropsicofisiológicas de todo el proceso musical y, además, ha incidido en las aplicaciones de la pedagogía de la música e incluso ha tratado la música en el mundo animal.

En lo referente a la pedagogía, González reflexiona que, si se ha impuesto la enseñanza musical tanto en Primaria como en Secundaria, “es porque la música y el entrenamiento musical desarrolla procesos cognitivos y parece que mejora determinados aspectos de la cognición del ser humano”.

En cuanto a la parte sobre la música en el mudo animal, está enfocada a indagar en cómo produce esos sonidos la fauna y qué efectos tiene: desde los cantos de pájaros que sirven para comunicarse hasta la geolocalización en el caso de los murciélagos. “El espectro de casos en el mundo animal es muy grande”.

El sonido en bruto, sin necesidad de tener estructura musical, ya tiene efectos de por sí. Esto es visible, por ejemplo, en los lagartos, que apenas tienen corteza cerebral pero poseen un sistema de alertas basado en el sonido. Sin embargo, el cerebro más evolucionado de los mamíferos les ha permitido profundizar en aspectos cognitivos y ejecutivos del conocimiento. “La evolución hace que busquemos otros efectos a la música, además de los meramente emocionales. Y también está el fenómeno de enculturación: a lo largo de la vida vas oyendo música y te desarrollas con un tipo de música concreto”.

Esa influencia de la cultura explica que los seres humanos sean más receptivos a la música tonal, pues es la que durante siglos más se ha difundido y practicado. “La música que se salga de la estructura tonal nos produce efectos diferentes. Es una modalidad que no ha sido enculturizada, no ha sido enseñado en los conservatorios ni implicado en la sociedad, por lo que no sabemos del todo qué efectos produce”, explica González.

 

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