Limpieza de pinos para evitar el deterioro del bosque

El tratamiento consiste en eliminar los árboles más débiles y garantizar la supervivencia del pinar en el futuro  

El Cabildo llevará a cabo un tratamiento forestal destinado a mejorar las masas de pinar canario procedente de la repoblación de las cumbres, que se realizará a través de lo que se denomina “corta de mejora” de aquellos árboles menos desarrollados y más débiles. La finalidad de esta actuación es frenar el debilitamiento del pinar y garantizar su supervivencia en el futuro.

Estos pinares han ido adquiriendo una densidad excesiva (actualmente 10.671 hectáreas) pues cuando se hicieron las repoblaciones, a mediados del siglo XX, se plantaron muchos ejemplares por hectárea para asegurar la rápida cobertura del suelo, asegurar la supervivencia y evitar la erosión.

Este criterio tenía que ir obligatoriamente asociado a la realización de tratamientos periódicos en los que se fuese cortando parte de esos pinos, a medida que iban creciendo, pero nunca se llegó a realizar. Por ese motivo, actualmente los pinares de repoblación están en un estado de gran fragilidad: con árboles muy pegados unos a otros, con un crecimiento débil, compitiendo por luz y agua y muy expuestos a los vientos y plagas.

Al no tener espacio y no llegar suficiente luz del sol al suelo, tampoco brotan otras plantas a su lado, ni pueden vivir muchas especies de fauna, por lo que es imprescindible hacer estas claras que consisten en cortar una serie de pies o árboles para disminuir esta excesiva densidad.

La realización de estos tratamientos permite que estos bosques mejoren su función ambiental, aumente la biodiversidad y su crecimiento, al tiempo que garantizan los beneficios indirectos que generan para la sociedad, como la protección frente a las avenidas y a la pérdida de suelo, entre otros.

Esta situación no es exclusiva de Canarias y soluciones como esta que se plantea en los espacios naturales protegidos de Tenerife están recogidas dentro de las estrategias de gestión y conservación de los bosques y espacios naturales protegidos en el ámbito europeo.

Otro de los aspectos en los que trabaja el Cabildo es buscar la puesta en valor y el beneficio para la sociedad de los restos que esa corta de mejora genera: troncos, vegetación. En función del destino que se de a esta madera se podrá contribuir a la reducción de las emisiones de CO2, crear empleo verde estable o sustituir combustibles fósiles no renovables y más contaminantes.

Los destinos que cumplen con la creación de empleo verde y otros fines serían el compostaje y el uso de la biomasa. La producción de materia orgánica compostada reduciría la importación de fertilizantes, los niveles de contaminación de la tierra, sustituyendo los químicos y la dependencia del exterior. Las astillas son un buen elemento estructurante para el compost elaborado a partir de residuos orgánicos y los restos de trabajos en jardinería, que el Cabildo, a través de otras líneas, también programa recuperar. Complementariamente, estaría el uso de la biomasa resultante con la finalidad de producir calor. Se trata de un uso muy eficiente frente a otros destinos energéticos a los que puede destinarse, como la producción de electricidad. También estaría la mejora de las aplicaciones tecnológicas de la madera del pino canario.



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