Contra el ictus, vida sana

Neurólogo del hospital San Juan de Dios de Tenerife, Jonathan López.

Desde el área de neurología del hospital San Juan de Dios de Tenerife insisten en la importancia de la prevención y en recurrir a urgencias tan pronto se detecte alguno de los síntomas para evitar el ictus.

El ictus o enfermedad vascular cerebral es actualmente un problema de salud importante en la población española, especialmente en Canarias, según explica el neurólogo del hospital San Juan de Dios de Tenerife, Jonathan López.

La aparición del ictus está condicionada, además de por una determinada predisposición genética, principalmente por los llamados factores de riesgo vascular. Los más importantes son la obesidad y el sedentarismo, la elevación de la tensión arterial, las cifras altas de colesterol en sangre, la diabetes, y el hecho de fumar.

Tienen también un riesgo alto de sufrir esta enfermedad cerebrovascular aquellas personas que hayan tenido otra manifestación de enfermedad vascular, así como aquellos que hayan padecido un infarto, una arteriopatía periférica, enfermedad renal crónica o un ictus con anterioridad.

El neurólogo de San Juan de Dios advierte que “se trata de un problema circulatorio a nivel cerebral que produce una detención brusca del flujo sanguíneo en un región del cerebro, ya sea porque se obstruye (isquemia) o bien porque se produce la salida de sangre a través de la rotura de una arteria (hemorragia)”.

Los síntomas aparecen de forma brusca y, en función de la región cerebral dañada, pueden ser múltiples y variados, como dificultad para hablar o entender el lenguaje; pérdida de visión en uno o ambos ojos o visión doble; mareo, vértigo o inestabilidad al caminar; o dificultad para mover un brazo o pierna. Otras señales son la deformación del gesto de la cara; la pérdida de la sensibilidad en un brazo o pierna; dolor de cabeza de forma súbita, o la combinación de varios de estos síntomas. Tanto si los síntomas persisten como si desaparecen en poco tiempo se debe recurrir al servicio de emergencias (112) para la derivación al centro sanitario más cercano de urgencia, pues como explica Jonathan López, el tiempo es un factor clave, ya que el cerebro puede verse dañado a medida que transcurren los primeros momentos desde la detección de los síntomas.

Desde el hospital San Juan de Dios insisten en la importancia de la prevención mediante el control de los factores de riesgo vascular. Caminar a paso ligero al menos durante una hora todos los días, llevar una dieta sana y equilibrada, evitar el consumo de alcohol y tabaco así como llevar un adecuado control de la tensión arterial, colesterol, triglicéridos y niveles de glucosa en sangre son medidas fundamentales para prevenir el padecimiento de ictus.


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