El estallido de aguas residuales desencadena la floración de Trichodesmium y aumenta las tasas de fijación de N 2

Aguas residuales y floración.

Eyal Rahav & Edo Bar-Zeev

El Mediterráneo meridional (SEMS) es un ambiente marino cálido y soleado con baja concentración de N ambiente, por lo que se considera ideal para la diazotrofía por diazotrófos autotróficos comoTrichodesmium . A pesar de las condiciones favorables, las tasas de fijación de N 2 suelen ser bajas y Trichodesmium apenas ha sido detectado en el SEMS. Este estudio informa sobre la aparición de unafloración de Trichodesmium en el SEMS que se atribuyó a T. erythraeum de acuerdo con la huella dactilar de ADN del gen nifH . Se encontró que esta floración (1407 ± 983 células L -1 ) fue desencadenada por una intensa explosión de aguas residuales crudas que suministraron altas concentraciones de N, P y carbono orgánico disuelto (DOC), lo que resultó en una baja concentración de N: P (~ 12: 1) y relaciones excepcionalmente altas C: P (~ 1340: 1). Supusimos que estas condiciones proporcionaron condiciones favorables para que la floración deTrichodesmium se formase a través del metabolismo mixotrófico. Como resultado, se registró un aumento de cuatro veces en la fijación de N 2 , que contribuyó con ~ 70% a la nueva producción primaria y estimuló un fuerte aumento en la actividad fitoplanctónica y en la biomasa. Las conclusiones de este estudio apuntan a un nuevo paradigma para la formación de flores T. erythraeum, que está estrechamente ligado a fuentes antropogénicas y pronta productividad microbiana en ambientes marinos oligotróficos como el SEMS.

Resultados

Los estallidos de aguas residuales sin tratar en el medio ambiente costero SEMS producen un par de veces cada invierno, por lo general debido a deficiencias en la red de alcantarillado y / o la sobrecarga del sistema de drenaje de aguas residuales por los escurrimientos de aguas pluviales (Fig.  1A ). La introducción de cargas elevadas de materia orgánica y nutrientes en ambientes costeros oligotróficos como el SEMS a menudo puede dar lugar a la formación de flores de fitoplancton (Fig.  1B, C y 2 ).La formación de estas floraciones puede alterar la dinámica microbiana de la red alimentaria 48 y liberar diferentes toxinas nocivas 49 , así como obstaculizar el desempeño de la desalación de agua de mar a gran escala y las centrales eléctricas 50

Condiciones costeras en el SEMS durante un evento de desbordamiento de aguas residuales

Durante febrero de 2015, las aguas residuales crudas y no tratadas fueron continuas e intensas (miles de L h -1 ) descargadas durante cinco días en el agua costera de la SEMS debido a diversas alteraciones en el sistema municipal de drenaje de Haifa, Israel (Figura  1A ) . Durante este período, la temperatura del agua y la salinidad no se vieron afectadas y se mantuvieron típicas de la estación, y sólo se registró una brisa débil (<4 nudos) durante el episodio de desagüe de aguas residuales (Tabla  1 ).Al mismo tiempo, NO 2  + NO 3 (2,3 ± 0,2? M) y PO 4 (0,2 ± 0,1 M) niveles aumentaron en un doble y cuatro veces respectivamente (Tabla  1 ). Este cambio en NO 2  + NO 3 y PO 4 resultaron en una reducida proporción N: P (~ 12), que es inferior a la colonial 16: 1 relación de Redfield. Los niveles de DOC también se han incrementado en 25 veces con relación a las condiciones ambientales pre-alcantarillado (268 ± 56 μM).

Después de la explosión de aguas residuales, una gran Tuff-comoTrichodesmium spp. Floración desarrollada, alcanzando densidades de 1407 ± 983 tricomas L -1 (Fig.  1B y 2C ). La huella genética de nifH indicó que la especie diazotrófica más abundante fue Trichodesmium erythraeum ( T. erythraeum ), constituyendo más del 70% de todas las OTU diazotróficas en la pluma de aguas residuales (Figura  2C ). Al mismo tiempo, las OTU relativas de otros diazótrofos, tales como proteobacterias heterotróficas (es decir, Desulfobacter sp .) Y cianobacterias (es decir, Leptolyngbya sp .), Fueron significativamente menores (<1%). Nuestras densidades medidas de T. erythraeumestuvieron de acuerdo con las observadas anteriormente en el Mediterráneo noreste (Mar Egeo) en septiembre de 2010 24 y en una prospección de tres años en el Golfo de Gabes (Túnez) 25 . Sin embargo, estos números de células estaban por debajo de las densidades reportadas para Trichodesmium spp a gran escala . Floraciones en otros ambientes marinos que oscilaron entre 3000 y 10000 tricomas L -1  51 , 52 ,53 .

Junto con el aumento agudo y significativo de T. erythraeum , las tasas de fijación de N 2 aumentaron en ~ cuatro veces (Fig.  2D ). Por lo tanto, atribuimos la parte del león de las correspondientes tasas de fijación deN 2 a T. erythraeum (Tabla  2 ). Esta relación dio N específicas 2 tasas de fijación por tricomas de ~ 3,5 nmol N tricomas -1 d -1 , que están en el extremo inferior de los valores reportados de otros sistemas oceánicas donde Trichodesmium spp. Prevalece 53 , 54 , 55 , o de monocultivos 56 deT. erythraeum . Sin embargo, debe tenerse en cuenta que no todas las células dentro de un filamento de Trichodesmium tomar un papel activo en la fijación de N 2 [ 34] . Por lo tanto, es posible que los filamentos de T. erythraeum observados aquí tuvieran menos células fijadoras de N2 (de todas las células vegetativas) que en otros sistemas marinos, lo que resultaría en menores tasas de fijación específica de N 2 en comparación con otros sistemas marinos.

Concomitante con el evento estallido de aguas residuales y laerythraeum T. floración, chl- unos niveles aumentaron positivamente y linealmente en un 60% (0,51 ± 0,06 g L -1 ) y PP por 230% (7,77 ± 0,97 g CL-1 d -1 ) En comparación con las concentraciones ambientales (Tablas  1 y2 ), lo que indica un aumento significativo de la biomasa fototrófica.Específicamente, estos cambios fueron aún más evidentes en el aumento de la abundancia de diatomeas (cuatro veces mayormenteAsterionellopsis glacialis y Leptocylindrus danicus ) y dinoflagelados (~ siete veces, mayormente Ceratium spp.) Tras el desarrollo de la floración de T. erythraeum (Figura  2A- C , Tabla  2 ). En contraste con el aumento significativo en la abundancia de microphytoplankton, bacterias heterotróficas sólo aumentó en 1,9 veces (Fig.  2B ]; Sin embargo, las tasas de PA aumentaron tres veces con relación a las tasas de producción antes del alta. Este desacoplamiento entre el aumento moderado de las bacterias heterotróficas totales y el aumento significativo de las tasas de PA, junto con los altos niveles de DOC que se introdujeron con las aguas residuales (Tabla 1 ), sugiere que algunos fotótrofos también podrían utilizar estos sustratos orgánicos cambiando a la nutrición mixotrófica 57 , 58 .

Información del Autor

Afiliaciones

1.      Instituto Nacional de Oceanografía, Israel Investigación Oceanográfica y Limnológica, Haifa, 31080, Israel

  • Eyal Rahav

2.     Los Institutos Jacob Blaustein para la Investigación del Desierto, el Instituto Zuckerberg para la Investigación del Agua (ZIWR), la Universidad Ben-Gurion del Negev, el Campus Sede Boqer, Beer Sheva, 84990, Israel

  • Edo Bar-Zeev

Contribuciones

Concebido y diseñado los experimentos: ER y EB-Z. Realizado los muestreos: ER Analizó los datos: ER y EB-Z. Reactivos / materiales / herramientas de análisis aportados: ER Escribió el trabajo: ER y EB-Z.

Conflicto de intereses

Los autores declaran que no tienen intereses en competencia.

Autores correspondientes

Correspondencia con Eyal Rahav o Edo Bar-Zeev .

Página de la fuente: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-04622-8

 

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