“Sobre el ateísmo y otras cuestiones”

Por Jesús Millán Muñoz.

En Europa en estas últimas décadas se está incentivando y promocionando el ateísmo, pero qué es el ateísmo. En un modesto artículo no se puede tratar la complejidad de Dios, de la religión, del teísmo y del ateísmo, pero ya que está este tema, diríamos en el candelero, debido a encuestas del CIS y todos los comentarios quizás haya que fijar algunos elementos o conceptos:

– Definición.

1º El ateísmo es la doctrina filosófica y práctica que niega la existencia de Dios, y que se puede probar su inexistencia.

2º La palabra ateísmo data de 1532.

2º Podríamos distinguir, entre un «ateísmo teórico», (valuación o juicio acerca de la no existencia de esa realidad trascendentes), y otro «ateísmo práctico», (vivir sin un reconocimiento de Dios en la vida cotidiana).

3º Otros indican que existe un «ateísmo negativo» (que no quiere emitir juicios) y un «ateísmo positivo» (intentando probar la no existencia).

4º Otros hablan de un «ateísmo escéptico» (por defender lo insalvable de la duda) y un «ateísmo agnóstico» (cuando consideran la demostrabilidad absolutamente imposible).

5º Como posibles orígenes del ateísmo son tenidas a) las filosofías y religiones tradicionales de marcado acento naturalista (jainismo budismo), b) el mundo moderno con su tecnociencia y el enorme poder que el ser humano ha alcanzado sobre la naturaleza, c) el problema del mal y de la providencia de dios, d) que el ateísmo aparentemente te deja vivir y hacer lo que te dé la gana, e) la secularización y el secularismo que vive la sociedad en general, y la occidental en particular, f) que los hombres en general, al menos en el primer mundo viven con sus necesidades primarias satisfechas y creen que ya no necesitan a Dios, g) los enormes problemas entre diversas religiones, y por tanto, la diversidad de revelaciones, y los hombres no saben si creer alguna o no creen en ninguna, h) los errores, algunos graves, no viendo las cosas positivas, que las religiones históricas han tenido a lo largo de los siglos. i) la soberbia y petulancia y vanidad del ser humano, que se cree que no necesita un Principio Trascendente. j) multitud de filosofías e ideologías que son claramente ateas y agnósticas; h) etc.

6º Tipos de ateísmo.

  1. a) Ateísmo científico, que trata de progresar en las ciencias humanas, intentando dar un tono científico a la moral.
  2. b) Ateísmo metafísico, entendiendo la existencia del hombre como algo absurdo y carente de sentido.
  3. c) Ateísmo humanista, que piensa en el hombre enfrentado a la vida ante la cual tiene que valerse por sí mismo prescindiendo de Dios.

7º Maritain clasifica el ateísmo del siguiente modo:

  1. a) Ateos prácticos, quienes realmente niegan a Dios con sus acciones.
  2. b) Pseudoateos, que niegan a Dios en teoría, cuando realidad creen en Dios.
  3. c) Ateos absolutos, quienes niegan tanto a dios como cualquier posible rastro de trascendencia.

8º Otra clasificación nos indica:

  1. a) Ateos positivos, que buscan cualquier cosa para sustituirlo.
  2. b) Ateos prácticos o negativos, que niegan a Dios in buscarle un sustituto.
  3. c) Ateísmo de la indiferencia.

No se trata de una explicación teórica, sino de un modelo de vida. Se vive como si Dios no existiera. Parece ser que está muy unido  al proceso de secularización y descristianización, y al de desacralización de la naturaleza, que a su vez está muy relacionado con el proceso de la industrialización, la urbanización, la demografía.

  1. d) Ateísmo crítico.
  2. e) Ateísmo moral. Sartre por ejemplo.

9º Ser ateo significa negar que haya dios, o que existan los dioses, o cualquier cosa que sea divina. Se opone al teísmo y al deísmo.

10º Platón en el libro X de las Leyes, distinguió tres tipos de ateísmo:

  1. a) la negación de la divinidad. En Platón es sinónimo de materialismo y de negación de lo trascendente a la materia.
  2. b) La creencia de que existe la divinidad, pero que ésta no se preocupa del hombre ni de lo humano; es algo similar al deísmo. Pero Platón piensa que esto es considerar a Dios como un ser indolente y vago, e inferior, por ello, al mismo hombre.
  3. c) La creencia de que la divinidad puede ser propiciada con sacrificios y ofrendas. Esto piensa Platón que es una aberración, pues poner a Dios al mismo que a los perros.

10º Toda postura atea o deísta o teísta depende del Dios que se supone o se presupone. Por tanto el ateo a qué Dios se opone o indica que no existe. Tiene que preguntarse.

– Por otro lado, alguien que esté en la esfera del ateísmo o agnosticismo, siempre exige que se le muestre y demuestre la existencia de Dios, pero también, se le debería exigir que él o ella muestre o demuestre la no existencia de Dios.

Por ejemplo, cómo explica un ateo, los sesenta milagros aprobados oficialmente en Lourdes. Si una persona tiene una mente científica, cómo explicar ese fenómeno.

¿O cómo explica un ateo el milagro aprobado oficialmente, y con todas las connotaciones de dicho proceso, que en otro lugar habría que explicar, el milagro del arroz de Olivenza, a unos cientos de kilómetros de la vivienda del lector que está frente estas palabras, realizado hace unas décadas?

¿Cómo explica el ateísmo y el agnosticismo figuras o personas, con las connotaciones, como las del Padre Pío de Pietrelcina, y otras, pero indicamos ésta, que diríamos es de nuestro siglo, por tanto, existen multitud de datos y narraciones?

Hume, puso en el mercado conceptual y filosófico, negando los milagros del Nazareno del Nuevo Testamento, pero aunque este factor, no lo utiliza demasiado el catolicismo, es una realidad que está en su seno. ¿La cuestión es por qué no se analizan estos fenómenos, de hoy, es decir de hace unas décadas? ¿O los varios milagros aprobados oficialmente, por la autoridad eclesiástica católica, cada mes, pasando por todos los procesos científicos y teológicos anteriores? ¿Cómo el ateísmo y el agnosticismo nos explican dichas realidades, porque antes de ser ateo, tendrían que buscar respuestas serias y profundas y científicas y filosóficas a esos fenómenos, entre otros?

– Para terminar, en un tema de tal importancia, deberíamos ser muy cuidadosos, porque, sin intención de que nadie se ofenda, gran parte de los campos de concentración y exterminio, que se montaron en el siglo veinte, como jamás han existido en cantidad, en número de personas, desconozco en proporción en relación a la totalidad de la población, han sido incentivados y puestos por dos sistemas antagónicos, que eran ateos.

Guste o disguste, esto nadie lo puede negar, dos sistemas sociopolíticos e ideológicos-filosóficos ateos, que tomaron el poder, pusieron en funcionamiento cientos y miles de campos de prisioneros, concentración, y de exterminio en toda Eurasia.

Nadie se rompa la corbata, porque es verdad esta afirmación, por eso existe una postura, muy reducida, de personas, que “aunque estimen que no existe Dios, creen todavía que la religión racional y moral y un Dios prudente, se necesitan para que la humanidad siga existiendo y sobreviviendo, es decir, no se extinga, teniendo en cuenta el poder que la especie ha alcanzado”. Cuestión que no es pequeña, ni baladí y merece una reflexión atenta, y no solo una rápida lectura de pasada de esta frase anterior.

También hay que distinguir entre creer en Dios, y creer en una religión positiva o en una revelación. Porque tampoco el concepto de Dios, es igual en todas las filosofías, ni en todas las religiones o revelaciones positivas. Por lo cual, qué Dios es el que usted cree o qué Dios es el que usted no cree, o qué religión positiva o revelación es la que usted cree y cual no… Porque puede suceder que en el Dios que usted no cree, yo tampoco creo, y en el que yo puede que crea, usted no cree…

También a todo ateo o agnóstico o teísta se le exige, le deberíamos exigir los demás, que sea cual sea su postura, él o ella y los demás, tenemos derecho, que la posición que ha adoptado, la sigua analizando durante toda la vida. Analice razones y contrarazones, emociones y sentimientos ante este tema. No llegue a una respuesta y la dé por terminada. Piense que el ateísmo es la postura racional, y ya deje de buscar la posibilidad de la existencia de Dios, por su bien y por el de los demás.

http://www.facebook.com/cuadernossoliloquiosjmm  © jmm caminero

 

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